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22
Planar Polyline Drawings with Good Angular Resolution
 Graph Drawing (Proc. GD '98), volume 1547 of LNCS
, 1998
"... . We present a linear time algorithm that constructs a planar polyline grid drawing of any plane graph with n vertices and maximum degree d on a (2n \Gamma 5) \Theta ( 3 2 n \Gamma 7 2 ) grid with at most 5n \Gamma 15 bends and minimum angle ? 2 d . In the constructed drawings, every edge h ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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. We present a linear time algorithm that constructs a planar polyline grid drawing of any plane graph with n vertices and maximum degree d on a (2n \Gamma 5) \Theta ( 3 2 n \Gamma 7 2 ) grid with at most 5n \Gamma 15 bends and minimum angle ? 2 d . In the constructed drawings, every edge has at most three bends and length O(n). To our best knowledge, this algorithm achieves the best simultaneous bounds concerning the grid size, angular resolution, and number of bends for planar grid drawings of highdegree planar graphs. Besides the nice theoretical features, the practical drawings are aesthetically very pleasing. An implementation of our algorithm is available with the AGDLibrary (Algorithms for Graph Drawing) [2, 1]. Our algorithm is based on ideas by Kant for polyline grid drawings for triconnected plane graphs [23]. In particular, our algorithm significantly improves upon his bounds on the angular resolution and the grid size for nontriconnected plane graphs....
Turnregularity and optimal area drawings of orthogonal representations
, 2000
"... Given an orthogonal representation H with n vertices and bends, we study the problem of computing a planar orthogonal drawing of H with small area. This problem has direct applications to the development of practical graph drawing techniques for information visualization and VLSI layout. In this pap ..."
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Cited by 17 (5 self)
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Given an orthogonal representation H with n vertices and bends, we study the problem of computing a planar orthogonal drawing of H with small area. This problem has direct applications to the development of practical graph drawing techniques for information visualization and VLSI layout. In this paper, we introduce the concept of turnregularity of an orthogonal representation H, provide combinatorial characterizations of it, and show that if H is turnregular (i.e., all its faces are turnregular), then a planar orthogonal drawing of H with minimum area can be computed in O(n) time, and a planar orthogonal drawing of H with minimum area and minimum total edge length within that area can be computed in O(n 7/4 log n) time. We also apply our theoretical results to the design and implementation of new practical heuristic methods for constructing planar orthogonal drawings. An experimental study conducted on a test suite of orthogonal representations of randomly generated biconnected 4planar graphs shows that the percentage of turnregular faces is quite high and that our heuristic drawing methods perform better than previous ones.
A Framework for Drawing Planar Graphs with Curves and Polylines
 J. Algorithms
, 1998
"... We describe a unified framework of aesthetic criteria and complexity measures for drawing planar graphs with polylines and curves. This framework includes several visual properties of such drawings, including aspect ratio, vertex resolution, edge length, edge separation, and edge curvature, as well ..."
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Cited by 15 (3 self)
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We describe a unified framework of aesthetic criteria and complexity measures for drawing planar graphs with polylines and curves. This framework includes several visual properties of such drawings, including aspect ratio, vertex resolution, edge length, edge separation, and edge curvature, as well as complexity measures such as vertex and edge representational complexity and the area of the drawing. In addition to this general framework, we present algorithms that operate within this framework. Specifically, we describe an algorithm for drawing any nvertex planar graph in an O(n) O(n) grid using polylines that have at most two bends per edge and asymptoticallyoptimal worstcase angular resolution. More significantly, we show how to adapt this algorithm to draw any nvertex planar graph using cubic Bézier curves, with all vertices and control points placed within an O(n) O(n) integer grid so that the curved edges achieve a curvilinear analogue of good angular resolution. Al...
Improving Angular Resolution in Visualizations of Geographic Networks
, 2000
"... In visualizations of largescale transportation and communications networks, node coordinates are usually fixed to preserve the underlying geography, while links are represented as geodesics for simplicity. This often leads ..."
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Cited by 13 (3 self)
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In visualizations of largescale transportation and communications networks, node coordinates are usually fixed to preserve the underlying geography, while links are represented as geodesics for simplicity. This often leads
Drawing Directed Acyclic Graphs: An Experimental Study
, 1996
"... In this paper we consider the class of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), and present the results of an experimental study on four drawing algorithms specifically developed for DAGs. Our study is conducted on two large test suites of DAGs and yields more than 30 charts comparing the performance of ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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In this paper we consider the class of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), and present the results of an experimental study on four drawing algorithms specifically developed for DAGs. Our study is conducted on two large test suites of DAGs and yields more than 30 charts comparing the performance of the drawing algorithms with respect to several quality measures, including area, crossings, bends, and aspect ratio. The algorithms exhibit various tradeoffs with respect to the quality measures, and none of them clearly outperforms the others.
Lombardi Drawings of Graphs
"... We introduce the notion of Lombardi graph drawings, named after the American abstract artist Mark Lombardi. In these drawings, edges are represented as circular arcs rather than as line segments or polylines, and the vertices have perfect angular resolution: the edges are equally spaced around each ..."
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Cited by 9 (6 self)
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We introduce the notion of Lombardi graph drawings, named after the American abstract artist Mark Lombardi. In these drawings, edges are represented as circular arcs rather than as line segments or polylines, and the vertices have perfect angular resolution: the edges are equally spaced around each vertex. We describe algorithms for finding Lombardi drawings of regular graphs, graphs of bounded degeneracy, and certain families of planar graphs.
Effects of Sociogram Drawing Conventions and Edge Crossings in Social Network Visualization
 Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications
, 2007
"... This paper describes a withinsubjects experiment. In this experiment, the effects of different spatial layouts on human sociogram perception are examined. We compare the relative effectiveness of five sociogram drawing conventions in communicating underlying network substance, based on user task pe ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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This paper describes a withinsubjects experiment. In this experiment, the effects of different spatial layouts on human sociogram perception are examined. We compare the relative effectiveness of five sociogram drawing conventions in communicating underlying network substance, based on user task performance and personal preference. We also explore the impact of edge crossings, a widely accepted readability aesthetic. Both objective performance and subjective questionnaire measures are employed in the study. Subjective data are gathered based on the methodology of Purchase et al. [70], while objective data are collected through an online system. We found that 1) both edge crossings and drawing conventions pose significant effects on user preference and task performance of finding groups, but neither has much impact on the perception of actor status. On the other hand, node positioning and angular resolution may be more important in perceiving actor status. In visualizing social networks, it is important to note that the techniques that are highly preferred by users do not necessarily lead to best task performance. 2) subjects have a strong preference of placing nodes on the top or in the center to highlight importance, and clustering nodes in the same group and separating clusters to highlight groups. They have tendency to believe that nodes on the top or in the center are more important, and nodes in close proximity belong to the same group. Some preliminary recommendations for sociogram design and hypotheses about human reading behavior are proposed.
A new forcedirected graph drawing method based on edgeedge repulsion
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION VIZUALISATION (IV
, 2005
"... The conventional forcedirected methods for drawing undirected graphs are based on either vertexvertex repulsion or vertexedge repulsion. In this paper, we propose a new forcedirected method based on edgeedge repulsion to draw graphs. In our framework, edges are modelled as charged springs, and ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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The conventional forcedirected methods for drawing undirected graphs are based on either vertexvertex repulsion or vertexedge repulsion. In this paper, we propose a new forcedirected method based on edgeedge repulsion to draw graphs. In our framework, edges are modelled as charged springs, and a final drawing can be generated by adjusting positions of vertices according to spring forces and the repulsive forces, derived from potential fields, among edges. Different from the previous methods, our new framework has the advantage of overcoming the problem of zero angular resolution, guaranteeing the absence of any overlapping of edges incident to the common vertex. Given graph layouts probably generated by classical algorithms as the inputs to our algorithm, experimental results reveal that our approach produces promising drawings (especially for trees and hypercubes) not only preserving the original properties of a high degree of symmetry and uniform edge length, but also preventing zero angular resolution. By allowing vertexvertex overlapping, our algorithm also results in more symmetrical drawings. Furthermore, we apply the model to producing dynamical balloon view drawings of rooted trees, usually used in information visualization.
Advances in the Theory and Practice of Graph Drawing
 Theor. Comp. Sci
, 1996
"... The visualization of conceptual structures is a key component of support tools for complex applications in science and engineering. Foremost among the visual representations used are drawings of graphs and ordered sets. In this talk, we survey recent advances in the theory and practice of graph d ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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The visualization of conceptual structures is a key component of support tools for complex applications in science and engineering. Foremost among the visual representations used are drawings of graphs and ordered sets. In this talk, we survey recent advances in the theory and practice of graph drawing. Specific topics include bounds and tradeoffs for drawing properties, threedimensional representations, methods for constraint satisfaction, and experimental studies. 1 Introduction In this paper, we survey selected research trends in graph drawing, and overview some recent results of the author and his collaborators. Graph drawing addresses the problem of constructing geometric representations of graphs, a key component of support tools for complex applications in science and engineering. Graph drawing is a young research field that has growth very rapidly in the last decade. One of its distinctive characteristics is to have furthered collaborative efforts between computer scien...
Planar and PolyArc Lombardi Drawings
"... Abstract. In Lombardi drawings of graphs, edges are represented as circular arcs, and the edges incident on vertices have perfect angular resolution. However, not every graph has a Lombardi drawing, and not every planar graph has a planar Lombardi drawing. We introduce kLombardi drawings, in which ..."
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Cited by 4 (4 self)
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Abstract. In Lombardi drawings of graphs, edges are represented as circular arcs, and the edges incident on vertices have perfect angular resolution. However, not every graph has a Lombardi drawing, and not every planar graph has a planar Lombardi drawing. We introduce kLombardi drawings, in which each edge may be drawn with k circular arcs, noting that every graph has a smooth 2Lombardi drawing. We show that every planar graph has a smooth planar 3Lombardi drawing and further investigate topics connecting planarity and Lombardi drawings. 1