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533
Mean shift: A robust approach toward feature space analysis
 In PAMI
, 2002
"... A general nonparametric technique is proposed for the analysis of a complex multimodal feature space and to delineate arbitrarily shaped clusters in it. The basic computational module of the technique is an old pattern recognition procedure, the mean shift. We prove for discrete data the convergence ..."
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Cited by 2124 (37 self)
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A general nonparametric technique is proposed for the analysis of a complex multimodal feature space and to delineate arbitrarily shaped clusters in it. The basic computational module of the technique is an old pattern recognition procedure, the mean shift. We prove for discrete data the convergence of a recursive mean shift procedure to the nearest stationary point of the underlying density function and thus its utility in detecting the modes of the density. The equivalence of the mean shift procedure to the Nadaraya–Watson estimator from kernel regression and the robust Mestimators of location is also established. Algorithms for two lowlevel vision tasks, discontinuity preserving smoothing and image segmentation are described as applications. In these algorithms the only user set parameter is the resolution of the analysis, and either gray level or color images are accepted as input. Extensive experimental results illustrate their excellent performance.
Data Clustering: A Review
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1999
"... Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad appeal and usefulness as one of the steps in exp ..."
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Cited by 1678 (14 self)
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Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad appeal and usefulness as one of the steps in exploratory data analysis. However, clustering is a difficult problem combinatorially, and differences in assumptions and contexts in different communities has made the transfer of useful generic concepts and methodologies slow to occur. This paper presents an overview of pattern clustering methods from a statistical pattern recognition perspective, with a goal of providing useful advice and references to fundamental concepts accessible to the broad community of clustering practitioners. We present a taxonomy of clustering techniques, and identify crosscutting themes and recent advances. We also describe some important applications of clustering algorithms such as image segmentation, object recognition, and information retrieval.
Combined Object Categorization and Segmentation With An Implicit Shape Model
 In ECCV workshop on statistical learning in computer vision
, 2004
"... We present a method for object categorization in realworld scenes. Following a common consensus in the field, we do not assume that a figureground segmentation is available prior to recognition. However, in contrast to most standard approaches for object class recognition, our approach automatical ..."
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Cited by 388 (10 self)
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We present a method for object categorization in realworld scenes. Following a common consensus in the field, we do not assume that a figureground segmentation is available prior to recognition. However, in contrast to most standard approaches for object class recognition, our approach automatically segments the object as a result of the categorization. This combination of recognition and segmentation into one process is made possible by our use of an Implicit Shape Model, which integrates both capabilities into a common probabilistic framework. In addition to the recognition and segmentation result, it also generates a perpixel confidence measure specifying the area that supports a hypothesis and how much it can be trusted. We use this confidence to derive a natural extension of the approach to handle multiple objects in a scene and resolve ambiguities between overlapping hypotheses with a novel MDLbased criterion. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of our method on a standard dataset for car detection and compare its performance to existing methods from the literature. Our results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms previously published methods while needing one order of magnitude less training examples. Finally, we present results for articulated objects, which show that the proposed method can categorize and segment unfamiliar objects in different articulations and with widely varying texture patterns, even under significant partial occlusion.
Computer Vision Face Tracking For Use in a Perceptual User Interface
, 1998
"... As a first step towards a perceptual user interface, a computer vision color tracking algorithm is developed and applied towards tracking human faces. Computer vision algorithms that are intended to form part of a perceptual user interface must be fast and efficient. They must be able to track in re ..."
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Cited by 321 (4 self)
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As a first step towards a perceptual user interface, a computer vision color tracking algorithm is developed and applied towards tracking human faces. Computer vision algorithms that are intended to form part of a perceptual user interface must be fast and efficient. They must be able to track in real time yet not absorb a major share of computational resources: other tasks must be able to run while the visual interface is being used. The new algorithm developed here is based on a robust nonparametric technique for climbing density gradients to find the mode (peak) of probability distributions called the mean shift algorithm. In our case, we want to find the mode of a color distribution within a video scene. Therefore, the mean shift algorithm is modified to deal with dynamically changing color probability distributions derived from video frame sequences. The modified algorithm is called the Continuously Adaptive Mean Shift (CAMSHIFT) algorithm. CAMSHIFT’s tracking accuracy is compared against a Polhemus tracker. Tolerance to noise, distractors and performance is studied. CAMSHIFT is then used as a computer interface for controlling commercial computer games and for exploring immersive 3D graphic worlds.
Online selection of discriminative tracking features
, 2003
"... This paper presents an online feature selection mechanism for evaluating multiple features while tracking and adjusting the set of features used to improve tracking performance. Our hypothesis is that the features that best discriminate between object and background are also best for tracking the ..."
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Cited by 316 (5 self)
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This paper presents an online feature selection mechanism for evaluating multiple features while tracking and adjusting the set of features used to improve tracking performance. Our hypothesis is that the features that best discriminate between object and background are also best for tracking the object. Given a set of seed features, we compute log likelihood ratios of class conditional sample densities from object and background to form a new set of candidate features tailored to the local object/background discrimination task. The twoclass variance ratio is used to rank these new features according to how well they separate sample distributions of object and background pixels. This feature evaluation mechanism is embedded in a meanshift tracking system that adaptively selects the topranked discriminative features for tracking. Examples are presented that demonstrate how this method adapts to changing appearances of both tracked object and scene background. We note susceptibility of the variance ratio feature selection method to distraction by spatially correlated background clutter, and develop an additional approach that seeks to minimize the likelihood of distraction.
Image Segmentation by Data Driven Markov Chain Monte Carlo
, 2001
"... This paper presents a computational paradigm called Data Driven Markov Chain Monte Carlo (DDMCMC) for image segmentation in the Bayesian statistical framework. The paper contributes to image segmentation in three aspects. Firstly, it designs effective and well balanced Markov Chain dynamics to exp ..."
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Cited by 267 (32 self)
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This paper presents a computational paradigm called Data Driven Markov Chain Monte Carlo (DDMCMC) for image segmentation in the Bayesian statistical framework. The paper contributes to image segmentation in three aspects. Firstly, it designs effective and well balanced Markov Chain dynamics to explore the solution space and makes the split and merge process reversible at a middle level vision formulation. Thus it achieves globally optimal solution independent of initial segmentations. Secondly, instead of computing a single maximum a posteriori solution, it proposes a mathematical principle for computing multiple distinct solutions to incorporates intrinsic ambiguities in image segmentation. A kadventurers algorithm is proposed for extracting distinct multiple solutions from the Markov chain sequence. Thirdly, it utilizes datadriven (bottomup) techniques, such as clustering and edge detection, to compute importance proposal probabilities, which eectively drive the Markov chain dynamics and achieve tremendous speedup in comparison to traditional jumpdiffusion method[4]. Thus DDMCMC paradigm provides a unifying framework where the role of existing segmentation algorithms, such as, edge detection, clustering, region growing, splitmerge, SNAKEs, region competition, are revealed as either realizing Markov chain dynamics or computing importance proposal probabilities. We report some results on color and grey level image segmentation in this paper and refer to a detailed report and a web site for extensive discussion.
Robust Analysis of Feature Spaces: Color Image Segmentation
, 1997
"... A general technique for the recovery of significant image features is presented. The technique is basedon the mean shift algorithm, a simple nonparametric procedure for estimating density gradients. Drawbacks of the current methods (including robust clustering) are avoided. Featurespace of any natu ..."
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Cited by 216 (6 self)
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A general technique for the recovery of significant image features is presented. The technique is basedon the mean shift algorithm, a simple nonparametric procedure for estimating density gradients. Drawbacks of the current methods (including robust clustering) are avoided. Featurespace of any naturecan beprocessed, and as an example, color image segmentation is discussed. The segmentation is completely autonomous, only its class is chosen by the user. Thus, the same program can produce a high quality edge image, or provide, by extracting all the significant colors, a preprocessor for contentbased query systems. A 512 x 512 color image is analyzed in less than 10 seconds on a standard workstation. Gray level images are handled as color images having only the lightness coordinate.
Mean Shift Analysis and Applications
, 1999
"... A nonparametric estimator of density gradient, the mean shift, is employed in the joint, spatialrange (value) domain of gray level and color images for discontinuity preserving filtering and image segmentation. Properties of the mean shift are reviewed and its convergence on lattices is proven. The ..."
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Cited by 181 (8 self)
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A nonparametric estimator of density gradient, the mean shift, is employed in the joint, spatialrange (value) domain of gray level and color images for discontinuity preserving filtering and image segmentation. Properties of the mean shift are reviewed and its convergence on lattices is proven. The proposed filtering method associates with each pixel in the image the closest local mode in the density distribution of the joint domain. Segmentation into a piecewise constant structure requires only one more step, fusion of the regions associated with nearby modes. The proposed technique has two parameters controlling the resolution in the spatial and range domains. Since convergence is guaranteed, the technique does not require the intervention of the user to stop the filtering at the desired image quality. Several examples, for gray and color images, show the versatilityofthe method and compare favorably with results described in the literature for the same images.
Interleaved object categorization and segmentation
 In BMVC
, 2003
"... Historically, figureground segmentation has been seen as an important and even necessary precursor for object recognition. In that context, segmentation is mostly defined as a data driven, that is bottomup, process. As for humans object recognition and segmentation are heavily intertwined processe ..."
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Cited by 156 (8 self)
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Historically, figureground segmentation has been seen as an important and even necessary precursor for object recognition. In that context, segmentation is mostly defined as a data driven, that is bottomup, process. As for humans object recognition and segmentation are heavily intertwined processes, it has been argued that topdown knowledge from object recognition can and should be used for guiding the segmentation process. In this paper, we present a method for the categorization of unfamiliar objects in difficult realworld scenes. The method generates object hypotheses without prior segmentation that can be used to obtain a categoryspecific figureground segmentation. In particular, the proposed approach uses a probabilistic formulation to incorporate knowledge about the recognized category as well as the supporting information in the image to segment the object from the background. This segmentation can then be used for hypothesis verification, to further improve recognition performance. Experimental results show the capacity of the approach to categorize and segment object categories as diverse as cars and cows. 1