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19
Parallel Implementation of Tree Skeletons
 Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
, 1996
"... Trees are a useful data type, but they are not routinely included in parallel programming systems because their irregular structure makes them seem hard to compute with e ciently. Wepresent a method for constructing implementations of skeletons, highlevel homomorphic operations on trees, that execu ..."
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Cited by 18 (2 self)
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Trees are a useful data type, but they are not routinely included in parallel programming systems because their irregular structure makes them seem hard to compute with e ciently. Wepresent a method for constructing implementations of skeletons, highlevel homomorphic operations on trees, that execute in parallel. In particular, we consider the case where the size of the tree is much larger than the the number of processors available, so that tree data must be partitioned. The approach uses the theory of categorical data types to derive implementation templates based on tree contraction. Many useful tree operations can be computed in time logarithmic in the size of their argument, on a wide range of parallel systems. 1 Contribution One common approach to generalpurpose parallel computation is based on packaging complex operations as templates, or skeletons [3, 12]. Skeletons encapsulate the control and data ow necessary to compute useful operations. This permits software to be written in a way that is independent of particular architectures, and indeed of underlying parallelism at all, while freeing implementations
Computing Downwards Accumulations on Trees Quickly
, 1995
"... Downwards passes on binary trees are essentially functions which pass information down a tree, from the root towards the leaves. Under certain conditions, a downwards pass is both `efficient' (computable in a functional style in parallel time proportional to the depth of the tree) and `manipula ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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Downwards passes on binary trees are essentially functions which pass information down a tree, from the root towards the leaves. Under certain conditions, a downwards pass is both `efficient' (computable in a functional style in parallel time proportional to the depth of the tree) and `manipulable' (enjoying a number of distributivity properties useful in program construction); we call a downwards pass satisfying these conditions a downwards accumulation. In this paper, we show that these conditions do in fact yield a stronger conclusion: the accumulation can be computed in parallel time proportional to the logarithm of the depth of the tree, on a Crew Pram machine.
Diffusion: Calculating Efficient Parallel Programs
 IN 1999 ACM SIGPLAN WORKSHOP ON PARTIAL EVALUATION AND SEMANTICSBASED PROGRAM MANIPULATION (PEPM ’99
, 1999
"... Parallel primitives (skeletons) intend to encourage programmers to build a parallel program from readymade components for which efficient implementations are known to exist, making the parallelization process easier. However, programmers often suffer from the difficulty to choose a combination of p ..."
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Cited by 9 (7 self)
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Parallel primitives (skeletons) intend to encourage programmers to build a parallel program from readymade components for which efficient implementations are known to exist, making the parallelization process easier. However, programmers often suffer from the difficulty to choose a combination of proper parallel primitives so as to construct efficient parallel programs. To overcome this difficulty, we shall propose a new transformation, called diffusion, which can efficiently decompose a recursive definition into several functions such that each function can be described by some parallel primitive. This allows programmers to describe algorithms in a more natural recursive form. We demonstrate our idea with several interesting examples. Our diffusion transformation should be significant not only in development of new parallel algorithms, but also in construction of parallelizing compilers.
Structured Parallel Computation in Structured Documents
 Journal of Universal Computer Science
, 1995
"... Document archives contain large amounts of data to which sophisticated queries are applied. The size of archives and the complexity of evaluating queries makes the use of parallelism attractive. The use of semanticallybased markup such as SGML makes it possible to represent documents and document ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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Document archives contain large amounts of data to which sophisticated queries are applied. The size of archives and the complexity of evaluating queries makes the use of parallelism attractive. The use of semanticallybased markup such as SGML makes it possible to represent documents and document archives as data types. We present a theory of trees and tree homomorphisms, modelling structured text archives and operations on them, from which it can be seen that: ffl many apparentlyunrelated tree operations are homomorphisms; ffl homomorphisms can be described in a simple parameterised way that gives standard sequential and parallel implementations for them; ffl special classes of homomorphisms have parallel implementations of practical interest. In particular, we develop an implementation for path expression search, a novel powerful query facility for structured text, that takes time logarithmic in the text size. Keywords: structured text, categorical data type, software developme...
An Analytical Method For Parallelization Of Recursive Functions
, 2001
"... Programming with parallel skeletons is an attractive framework because it encourages programmers to develop efficient and portable parallel programs. However, extracting parallelism from sequential specifications and constructing efficient parallel programs using the skeletons are still difficult ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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Programming with parallel skeletons is an attractive framework because it encourages programmers to develop efficient and portable parallel programs. However, extracting parallelism from sequential specifications and constructing efficient parallel programs using the skeletons are still difficult tasks. In this paper, we propose an analytical approach to transforming recursive functions on general recursive data structures into compositions of parallel skeletons. Using static slicing, we have defined a classification of subexpressions based on their dataparallelism. Then, skeletonbased parallel programs are generated from the classification. To extend the scope of parallelization, we have adopted more general parallel skeletons which do not require the associativity of argument functions. In this way, our analytical method can parallelize recursive functions with complex data flows. Keywords: data parallelism, parallelization, functional languages, parallel skeletons, data flow analysis, static slice 1.
Questions and Answers About Categorical Data Types
 in Proceedings on the BCS Workshop on Bulk Data Types for Architecture Independence, London (20
, 1994
"... this document without fee provided it is copied in its entirety and this notice remains attached. the computation and communication of an operation on the data type are arranged. That's a job for the implementer and compiler writer. So there's a separation of concerns at just the right le ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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this document without fee provided it is copied in its entirety and this notice remains attached. the computation and communication of an operation on the data type are arranged. That's a job for the implementer and compiler writer. So there's a separation of concerns at just the right level  programmers think about monolithic operations on data types, while implementers worry about how to make them happen. This provides architecture independence. If the target machine is replaced during the night by some new machine, even a completely different architecture, there is no need to alter the software. The differences between machines can be hidden by the compiler.
Deriving Tidy Drawings of Trees
, 1995
"... The treedrawing problem is to produce a `tidy' mapping of elements of a tree to points in the plane. In this paper, we derive an efficient algorithm for producing tidy drawings of trees. The specification, the starting point for the derivations, consists of a collection of intuitively appealin ..."
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Cited by 6 (4 self)
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The treedrawing problem is to produce a `tidy' mapping of elements of a tree to points in the plane. In this paper, we derive an efficient algorithm for producing tidy drawings of trees. The specification, the starting point for the derivations, consists of a collection of intuitively appealing criteria satisfied by tidy drawings. The derivation shows constructively that these criteria completely determine the drawing. Indeed, the criteria completely determine a simple but inefficient algorithm for drawing a tree, which can be transformed into an efficient algorithm using just standard techniques and a small number of inventive steps. The algorithm consists of an upwards accumulation followed by a downwards accumulation on the tree, and is further evidence of the utility of these two higherorder tree operations.
Systematic Derivation of Tree Contraction Algorithms
 In Proceedings of INFOCOM '90
, 2005
"... While tree contraction algorithms play an important role in e#cient tree computation in parallel, it is di#cult to develop such algorithms due to the strict conditions imposed on contracting operators. In this paper, we propose a systematic method of deriving e#cient tree contraction algorithms f ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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While tree contraction algorithms play an important role in e#cient tree computation in parallel, it is di#cult to develop such algorithms due to the strict conditions imposed on contracting operators. In this paper, we propose a systematic method of deriving e#cient tree contraction algorithms from recursive functions on trees in any shape. We identify a general recursive form that can be parallelized to obtain e#cient tree contraction algorithms, and present a derivation strategy for transforming general recursive functions to parallelizable form. We illustrate our approach by deriving a novel parallel algorithm for the maximum connectedset sum problem on arbitrary trees, the treeversion of the famous maximum segment sum problem.
A Parallel Tree Difference Algorithm
 Information Processing Letters
, 1995
"... We present a tree difference algorithm with expected sequential execution time O(n log log n) and expected parallel execution time of O(log n), for trees of size n. The algorithm assumes unique labels and permits operations only on leaves and frontier subtrees. Despite these limitations, it can be u ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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We present a tree difference algorithm with expected sequential execution time O(n log log n) and expected parallel execution time of O(log n), for trees of size n. The algorithm assumes unique labels and permits operations only on leaves and frontier subtrees. Despite these limitations, it can be useful in the analysis of structured text. 1 Applications of Tree Difference In this paper we describe an algorithm for determining the difference between two trees under the assumption that each node has a unique label chosen from an ordered set. The algorithm uses a novel form of hashing to quickly extract neighbourhood information for each node. In a second phase, this neighbourhood information is processed to determine what differences exist between the trees. We assume that trees may be arbitrarily branching, and that the following operations may have been applied to them: 1. a node was inserted to become a new leaf; 2. a leaf node was deleted; 3. a leaf node was moved to become a lea...
The Third Homomorphism Theorem on Trees Downward & Upward Lead to DivideandConquer
"... Parallel programs on lists have been intensively studied. It is well known that associativity provides a good characterization for divideandconquer parallel programs. In particular, the third homomorphism theorem is not only useful for systematic development of parallel programs on lists, but it i ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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Parallel programs on lists have been intensively studied. It is well known that associativity provides a good characterization for divideandconquer parallel programs. In particular, the third homomorphism theorem is not only useful for systematic development of parallel programs on lists, but it is also suitable for automatic parallelization. The theorem states that if two sequential programs iterate the same list leftward and rightward, respectively, and compute the same value, then there exists a divideandconquer parallel program that computes the same value as the sequential programs. While there have been many studies on lists, few have been done for characterizing and developing of parallel programs on trees. Naive divideandconquer programs, which divide a tree at the root and compute independent subtrees in parallel, take time that is proportional to the height of the input tree and have poor scalability with respect to the number of processors when the input tree is illbalanced. In this paper, we develop a method for systematically constructing scalable divideandconquer parallel programs on trees, in which two sequential programs lead to a scalable divideandconquer parallel program. We focus on paths instead of trees so as to utilize rich results on lists and demonstrate that associativity provides good characterization for scalable divideandconquer parallel programs on trees. Moreover, we generalize the third homomorphism theorem from lists to trees. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with various examples. Our results, being generalizations of known results for lists, are generic in the sense that they work well for all polynomial data structures.