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27
The dynamics of scaling: A memorybased anchor model of category rating and absolute identification
 Psychological Review
, 2005
"... A memorybased scaling model—ANCHOR—is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, baselevel strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near ..."
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A memorybased scaling model—ANCHOR—is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, baselevel strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global scaling problem into a local comparison. An explicit correction strategy determines the final response. Two incremental learning mechanisms update the locations and baselevel activations of the anchors. This gives rise to sequential, context, transfer, practice, and other dynamic effects. The scale unfolds as an adaptive map. A hierarchy of models is tested on a battery of quantitative measures from 2 experiments in absolute identification and category rating. Category rating is a widely used method of data collection in experimental psychology. Ratings come in a wide variety of guises: psychophysical scales, similarity judgments, typicality judgments, confidence ratings, attitude questionnaires, health selfreports, and many others. The participants in all these tasks are asked to rate things using an ordered set of categories such as 1,..., 7 or strongly agree,..., strongly disagree. Most people
Qualityadjusted lifeyears (QALY) utility models under expected utility and rank dependent utility assumptions
 Journal of Mathematical Psychology
, 1999
"... Qualityadjusted life years (QALY) utility models are multiattribute utility models of survival duration and health quality. This paper formulates six classes of QALY utility models and axiomatizes these models under expected utility (EU) and rankdependent utility (RDU) assumptions. The QALY models ..."
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Qualityadjusted life years (QALY) utility models are multiattribute utility models of survival duration and health quality. This paper formulates six classes of QALY utility models and axiomatizes these models under expected utility (EU) and rankdependent utility (RDU) assumptions. The QALY models investigated in this paper include the standard linear QALY model, the power and exponential multiplicative models, and the general multiplicative model. Emphasis is placed on a preference assumption, the zero condition, that greatly simplifies the axiomatizations under EU and RDU assumptions. The RDU axiomatizations of QALY models are generally similar to their EU counterparts, but in some cases, they require modification because linearity in probability is no longer assumed, and rank dependence introduces asymmetries between the domains of betterthandeath health states and worsethandeath health states. 1999 Academic Press This paper concerns the foundations of qualityadjusted life years (QALY) utility models. QALY utility models are widely used in the expected utility analysis of health decisions because they provide an outcome measure that integrates the duration and quality of survival. Before discussing the specifics of these models, it will be helpful to motivate the discussion by describing the role played by QALY utility models in health decision analysis (Weinstein et al., 1980; Sox, Blatt,
Memory psychophysics for visual area and length
 Memory and Cognition
, 1978
"... Independent groups of observers made magnitude estimates of geographical area or interstate distance. In Experiment 1, observers estimated the areas of nations or of states of the United States from memory. In Experiment 2, estimates of state area were made either with a map present or from memory ..."
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Cited by 15 (0 self)
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Independent groups of observers made magnitude estimates of geographical area or interstate distance. In Experiment 1, observers estimated the areas of nations or of states of the United States from memory. In Experiment 2, estimates of state area were made either with a map present or from memory after the map had been studied. Similarly, in Experiment 3, observers made perceptual or memorial estimates of interstate distances. Perceptual estimates of distance and geographical area were related to actual stimulus magnitude by power functions whose exponents were similar to those found with conventional procedures. Memory estimates were also related to actual area and distance by power functions. Comparison of memory and perceptual exponents showed that for both area and distance, the memory exponent was equal to the square of the perceptual exponent. The results of Experiment 3 were predicted by a "reperceptual " model of memory for continuous dimensions, which was developed to describe the results of Experiment 2. A number of recent empirical findings have emphasized the similarity of perceptual and cognitive processes (e.g., Shepard & Podgomy, in press). This
Does Irrelevant Information Play a Role in Judgment
 In: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society
, 2004
"... This paper presents an unusual prediction made by the DUALbased model of judgment JUDGEMAP and its verification. The model is shortly presented as well as the simulation data obtained with it. These data predict that people will use the information on an irrelevant dimension when judging another di ..."
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Cited by 9 (6 self)
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This paper presents an unusual prediction made by the DUALbased model of judgment JUDGEMAP and its verification. The model is shortly presented as well as the simulation data obtained with it. These data predict that people will use the information on an irrelevant dimension when judging another dimension. This prediction is then tested in a psychological experiment and confirmed.
The ongoing dialog between empirical science and measurement theory
 Journal of Mathematical Psychology
, 1996
"... This review article attempts to highlight from my personal perspective some of the major developments in the representational theory of measurement during the past 50 years. Emphasis is placed on the ongoing interplay between the development of abstract theory and the attempts to apply it to empiric ..."
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This review article attempts to highlight from my personal perspective some of the major developments in the representational theory of measurement during the past 50 years. Emphasis is placed on the ongoing interplay between the development of abstract theory and the attempts to apply it to empirically testable phenomena. The article has four major sections. The first concerns classical representational measurement, which was the successful attempt to formulate the major measurement methods of classical physics: extensive and additive conjoint structures, their distributive interlock in dimensional analysis, and intensive (averaging) structures. The second illustrates a nontrivial behavioral example using both extensive and conjoint measurement plus functional equations to arrive at rank and signdependent utility (also called cumulative prospect) representations for decision making under risk. The third section, contemporary representational measurement, somewhat overlaps the classical one but includes new findings and approaches: representations of nonadditive concatenation and conjoint structures; a general theory of scale types; results for general, finitely unique, homogeneous structures; structures that are homogeneous between singular points; generalized distributive triples; and a generalization of dimensional analysis to include any ratio scalable attribute; and the concept of meaningfulness. The final section concerns applications of the latter ideas to psychophysical scaling and merging functions.] 1996 Academic Press, Inc. 1.
Sectoral Labor Supply, Choice Restrictions and Functional Form
, 2004
"... In this paper we discuss a general framework for analyzing labor supply behavior in the presence of complicated budget and quantity constraints of which some are unobserved. The individual’s labor supply decision is viewed as a choice from a set of discrete alternatives (jobs). These jobs are chara ..."
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In this paper we discuss a general framework for analyzing labor supply behavior in the presence of complicated budget and quantity constraints of which some are unobserved. The individual’s labor supply decision is viewed as a choice from a set of discrete alternatives (jobs). These jobs are characterized by attributes such as hours of work, sector specific wages and other sector specific aspects of the jobs. We focus in particular on the theoretical justification of functional form assumptions and properties of the random components of the model. The labor supply model for married women is estimated on Norwegian data. Wage elasticities and the outcome of a tax reform analysis show that overall labor supply is moderately elastic, but these modest overall responses shadow for much stronger intersectoral changes. Our structural model, with a detailed specification of job opportunities, is compared empirically with a model in which the utility is approximated with a series expansion. It turns out that the performance of our model is at least as good as the labor supply model with flexible preferences.
Measurement foundations for multiattribute psychophysical theories based on first order polynomials
 Journal of Mathematical Psychology
, 1983
"... The class of first order polynomial measurement representations is defined, and a method for proving the existence of such representations is described. The method is used to prove the existence of first order polynomial generalizations of expected utility theory, difference measurement, and additiv ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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The class of first order polynomial measurement representations is defined, and a method for proving the existence of such representations is described. The method is used to prove the existence of first order polynomial generalizations of expected utility theory, difference measurement, and additive conjoint measurement. It is then argued that first order polynomial representations provide a deep and far reaching characterization of psychological invariance for subjective magnitudes of multiattributed stimuli. To substantiate this point, two applications of first order polynomial representation theory to the foundations of psychophysics are described. First, Relation theory, a theory of subjective magnitude proposed by Shepard (Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1981, 24, 2157) and Krantz (Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1972, 9, 168199), is generalized to a theory of magnitude for multiattributed stimuli. The generalization is based on a postulate of context invariance for the constituent uniattribute magnitudes of a multiattribute magnitude. Second, the power law for subjective magnitude is generalized to a multiattribute version of the power law. Finally, it is argued that a common logical pattern underlies multiattribute generalizations of psychological theories to first order polynomial representations. This
jeanluc.marichal[at]uni.lu
, 2009
"... ordinal scales into an ordinal scale: a state of the art ..."
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