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Nonmonotonic Reasoning in the Framework of Situation Calculus
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1991
"... Most of the solutions proposed to the Yale shooting problem have either introduced new nonmonotonic reasoning methods (generally involving temporal priorities) or completely reformulated the domain axioms to represent causality explicitly. This paper presents a new solution based on the idea that si ..."
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Cited by 132 (0 self)
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Most of the solutions proposed to the Yale shooting problem have either introduced new nonmonotonic reasoning methods (generally involving temporal priorities) or completely reformulated the domain axioms to represent causality explicitly. This paper presents a new solution based on the idea that since the abnormality predicate takes a situational argument, it is important for the meanings of the situations to be held constant across the various models being compared. This is accomplished by a simple change in circumscription policy: when Ab is circumscribed, Result (rather than Holds) is allowed to vary. In addition, we need an axiom ensuring that every consistent situation is included in the domain of discourse. Ordinary circumscription will then produce the intuitively correct answer. Beyond its conceptual simplicity, the solution proposed here has additional advantages over the previous approaches. Unlike the approach that uses temporal priorities, it can support reasoning backward...
A Simple Solution to the Yale Shooting Problem
, 1989
"... Most of the solutions proposed to the Yale shooting problem have either introduced new nonmonotonic reasoning methods (generally involving temporal priorities) or completely reformulated the domain axioms to represent causality explicitly. This paper presents a new solution based on the idea that si ..."
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Cited by 51 (3 self)
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Most of the solutions proposed to the Yale shooting problem have either introduced new nonmonotonic reasoning methods (generally involving temporal priorities) or completely reformulated the domain axioms to represent causality explicitly. This paper presents a new solution based on the idea that since the abnormality predicate takes a situational argument, it is important for the meanings of the situations to be held constant across the various models being compared. This is accomplished by a simple change in circumscription policy: when Ab is circumscribed, Result (rather than Holds) is allowed to vary. In addition, we need an axiom ensuring that every consistent situation is included in the domain of discourse. Ordinary circumscription will then produce the intuitively correct answer. Beyond its conceptual simplicity, the solution proposed here has additional advantages over the previous approaches. Unlike the approach that uses temporal priorities, it can support reasoning backwar...
Active Logics: A Unified Formal Approach to Episodic Reasoning
"... Artificial intelligence research falls roughly into two categories: formal and implementational. This division is not completely firm: there are implementational studies based on (formal or informal) theories (e.g., CYC, SOAR, OSCAR), and there are theories framed with an eye toward implementabili ..."
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Cited by 35 (2 self)
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Artificial intelligence research falls roughly into two categories: formal and implementational. This division is not completely firm: there are implementational studies based on (formal or informal) theories (e.g., CYC, SOAR, OSCAR), and there are theories framed with an eye toward implementability (e.g., predicate circumscription). Nevertheless, formal /theoretical work tends to focus on very narrow problems (and even on very special cases of very narrow problems) while trying to get them "right" in a very strict sense, while implementational work tends to aim at fairly broad ranges of behavior but often at the expense of any kind of overall conceptually unifying framework that informs understanding. It is sometimes urged that this gap is intrinsic to the topic: intelligence is not a unitary thing for which there will be a unifying theory, but rather a "society" of subintelligences whose overall behavior cannot be reduced to useful characterizing and predictive principles.
PAGODA: A Model for Autonomous Learning in Probabilistic Domains
, 1992
"... as a testbed for designing intelligent agents. The system consists of an overall agent architecture and five components within the architecture. The five components are: 1. GoalDirected Learning (GDL), a decisiontheoretic method for selecting learning goals. 2. Probabilistic Bias Evaluation (PBE) ..."
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Cited by 6 (2 self)
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as a testbed for designing intelligent agents. The system consists of an overall agent architecture and five components within the architecture. The five components are: 1. GoalDirected Learning (GDL), a decisiontheoretic method for selecting learning goals. 2. Probabilistic Bias Evaluation (PBE), a technique for using probabilistic background knowledge to select learning biases for the learning goals. 3. Uniquely Predictive Theories (UPTs) and Probability Computation using Independence (PCI), a probabilistic representation and Bayesian inference method for the agent's theories. 4. A probabilistic learning component, consisting of a heuristic search algorithm and a Bayesian method for evaluating proposed theories. 5. A decisiontheoretic probabilistic planner, which searches through the probability space defined by the agent's current theory to select the best action. PAGODA is given as input an initial planning goal (its ove
Nonmonotonic Temporal Reasoning
 In
, 1989
"... this article we will discuss explicitly the situation calculus, but also point to how the discussion applies to temporal logics as well. ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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this article we will discuss explicitly the situation calculus, but also point to how the discussion applies to temporal logics as well.
Formal RealTime Imagination
 Fundamenta Informaticae, special issue on Formal Imagination
, 1995
"... Formal realtime imagination is a term that may curiously describe the activities of a commonsense agent in a realtime setting in general, and in a tight deadline situation in particular. We briefly describe an `activelogic' mechanism that fits this description. Temporal projection is an essential ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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Formal realtime imagination is a term that may curiously describe the activities of a commonsense agent in a realtime setting in general, and in a tight deadline situation in particular. We briefly describe an `activelogic' mechanism that fits this description. Temporal projection is an essential component of realtime planning. We draw a parallel between imagination as we understand it in human context and the capacity of the automated agent to formulate mental images of possible scenarios and plans of action in the course of its reasoning. We outline a treatment of temporal issues of significance to a timesituated reasoning mechanism in a dynamic setting with deadlines. The Yale shooting problem is a benchmark problem in temporal reasoning. We demonstrate how the activelogic planning mechanism successfully handles some interesting realtime variants of the Yale shooting problem. The solutions to each of these illustrate the agent's ability to form contexts within which to reason,...