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142
The PEPA Workbench: A Tool to Support a Process Algebrabased Approach to Performance Modelling
 In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Modelling Techniques and Tools for Computer Performance Evaluation, number 794 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1994
"... . In this paper we present a new technique for performance modelling and a tool supporting this approach. Performance Evaluation Process Algebra (PEPA) [1] is an algebraic language which can beused to build models of computer systems which capture information about the performance of the system. The ..."
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Cited by 155 (59 self)
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. In this paper we present a new technique for performance modelling and a tool supporting this approach. Performance Evaluation Process Algebra (PEPA) [1] is an algebraic language which can beused to build models of computer systems which capture information about the performance of the system. The PEPA language serves two purposes as a formal description language for computer system models. The performancerelated information in the model may be used to predict the performance of the system whereas the behavioural information in the model may be exploited when reasoning about the functional behaviour of the system (e.g. when finding deadlocks or when exhibiting equivalences between subcomponents). In this paper we concentrate on the performance aspects of the language. A method of reasoningaboutPEPA modelsproceedsby considering the derivation graph obtained from the model using the underlying operational semantics of the PEPA language. The derivation graph is systematically reduced ...
Termination in Timed Process Algebra
 Formal Aspects of Computing
, 2000
"... We investigate different forms of termination in timed process algebras. The integrated framework of discrete and dense time, relative and absolute time process algebras is extended with forms of successful and unsuccessful termination. The different algebras are interrelated by embeddings and conse ..."
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Cited by 155 (25 self)
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We investigate different forms of termination in timed process algebras. The integrated framework of discrete and dense time, relative and absolute time process algebras is extended with forms of successful and unsuccessful termination. The different algebras are interrelated by embeddings and conservative extensions.
A Congruence Theorem for Structured Operational Semantics With Predicates
, 1993
"... . We proposed a syntactical format, the path format, for structured operational semantics in which predicates may occur. We proved that strong bisimulation is a congruence for all the operators that can be defined within the path format. To show that this format is useful we provided many examples t ..."
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Cited by 109 (5 self)
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. We proposed a syntactical format, the path format, for structured operational semantics in which predicates may occur. We proved that strong bisimulation is a congruence for all the operators that can be defined within the path format. To show that this format is useful we provided many examples that we took from the literature about CCS, CSP, and ACP; they do satisfy the path format but no formats proposed by others. The examples include concepts like termination, convergence, divergence, weak bisimulation, a zero object, side conditions, functions, real time, discrete time, sequencing, negative premises, negative conclusions, and priorities (or a combination of these notions). Key Words & Phrases: structured operational semantics, term deduction system, transition system specification, structured state system, labelled transition system, strong bisimulation, congruence theorem, predicate. 1980 Mathematics Subject Classification (1985 Revision): 68Q05, 68Q55. CR Categories: D.3.1...
A tutorial on EMPA: A theory of concurrent processes with nondeterminism, priorities, probabilities and time
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1998
"... In this tutorial we give an overview of the process algebra EMPA, a calculus devised in order to model and analyze features of realworld concurrent systems such as nondeterminism, priorities, probabilities and time, with a particular emphasis on performance evaluation. The purpose of this tutorial ..."
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Cited by 95 (9 self)
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In this tutorial we give an overview of the process algebra EMPA, a calculus devised in order to model and analyze features of realworld concurrent systems such as nondeterminism, priorities, probabilities and time, with a particular emphasis on performance evaluation. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the design choices behind the development of EMPA and how the four features above interact, and to show that a reasonable trade off between the expressive power of the calculus and the complexity of its underlying theory has been achieved.
TimeConstrained Automata
 CONCUR '91: 2nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory, volume 527 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1991
"... ) Michael Merritt AT&T Bell Laboratories 600 Mountain Avenue Murray Hill, NJ 07974 merritt@research.att.com Francesmary Modugno School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 fmm@cs.cmu.edu Mark R. Tuttle DEC Cambridge Research Lab One Kendall Sq., Bldg. 700 Cambridg ..."
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Cited by 83 (0 self)
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) Michael Merritt AT&T Bell Laboratories 600 Mountain Avenue Murray Hill, NJ 07974 merritt@research.att.com Francesmary Modugno School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 fmm@cs.cmu.edu Mark R. Tuttle DEC Cambridge Research Lab One Kendall Sq., Bldg. 700 Cambridge, MA 02139 tuttle@crl.dec.com Abstract In this paper, we augment the inputoutput automaton model in order to reason about time in concurrent systems, and we prove simple properties of this augmentation. The inputoutput automata model is a useful model for reasoning about computation in concurrent and distributed systems because it allows fundamental properties such as fairness and compositionality to be expressed easily and naturally. A unique property of the model is that systems are modeled as the composition of autonomous components. This paper describes a way to add a notion of time to the model in a way that preserves these properties. The result is a simple, compositional model fo...
Forward and backward simulations for timingbased systems
 In de Bakker et al
, 1991
"... A general automaton model for timingbased systems is presented and is used as the context for developing a variety of simulation proof techniques for such systems. As a first step, a comprehensive overview of simulation techniques for simple untimed automata is given. In particular, soundness and ..."
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Cited by 63 (16 self)
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A general automaton model for timingbased systems is presented and is used as the context for developing a variety of simulation proof techniques for such systems. As a first step, a comprehensive overview of simulation techniques for simple untimed automata is given. In particular, soundness and completeness results for (1) refinements, (2) forward and backward simulations, (3) forwardbackward and backwardforward simulations, and (4) history and prophecy relations are given. History and prophecy relations are new and are abstractions of the history variables of Owicki and Gries and the prophecy variables of Abadi and Lamport, respectively. As a subsequent step, it is shown how most of the results for untimed automata can be carried over to the setting of timed automata. In fact, many of the results for the timed case are obtained as consequences of the analogous results for the untimed case.
A Process Algebraic Approach to the Specification and Analysis of ResourceBound RealTime Systems
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 1994
"... Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of timed process algebras for the specification and analysis of realtime systems. This paper describes a timed process algebra called ACSR, which supports synchronous timed actions and asynchronous instantaneous events. Timed actions a ..."
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Cited by 58 (40 self)
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Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of timed process algebras for the specification and analysis of realtime systems. This paper describes a timed process algebra called ACSR, which supports synchronous timed actions and asynchronous instantaneous events. Timed actions are used to represent the usage of resources and to model the passage of time. Events are used to capture synchronization between processes. To be able to specify real systems accurately, ACSR supports a notion of priority that can be used to arbitrate among timed actions competing for the use of resources and among events that are ready for synchronization. The paper also includes a brief overview of other timed process algebras and discusses similarities and differences between them and ACSR.
A brief history of process algebra
 Theor. Comput. Sci
, 2004
"... Abstract. This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The a ..."
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Cited by 56 (1 self)
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Abstract. This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The author gives his personal views on these matters. He also considers the present situation, and states some challenges for the future.
An Operational Semantics for Timed CSP
, 1995
"... An operational semantics is defined for the language of timed CSP, in terms of two relations: an evolution relation, which describes when a process becomes another simply by allowing time to pass; and a timed transition relation, which describes when a process may become another by performing an act ..."
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Cited by 55 (6 self)
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An operational semantics is defined for the language of timed CSP, in terms of two relations: an evolution relation, which describes when a process becomes another simply by allowing time to pass; and a timed transition relation, which describes when a process may become another by performing an action at a particular time. It is shown how the timed behaviours used as the basis for the denotational models of the language may be extracted from the operational semantics. Finally, the failures model for timed CSP is shown to be equivalent to maytesting, and thus to trace congruence. 1 Introduction An operational semantics for a computer programming language defines the meaning of programs written in that language in terms of how a machine is intended to execute them step by step. It therefore offers a direct intuition of how program constructs are intended to behave, in contrast with denotational approaches, which often abstract away from such considerations, and with algebraic approach...
Compositional Markovian modelling using a process algebra
 Numerical Solution of Markov Chains
, 1995
"... We introduce a stochastic process algebra, PEPA, as a highlevel modelling paradigm for continuous time Markov chains (CTMC). Process algebras are mathematical theories which model concurrent systems by their algebra and provide apparatus for reasoning about the structure and behaviour of the model ..."
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Cited by 52 (14 self)
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We introduce a stochastic process algebra, PEPA, as a highlevel modelling paradigm for continuous time Markov chains (CTMC). Process algebras are mathematical theories which model concurrent systems by their algebra and provide apparatus for reasoning about the structure and behaviour of the model. Recent extensions of these algebras, associating random variables with actions, make the models also amenable to Markovian analysis. A compositional structure is inherent in the PEPA language. As well as the clear advantages that this offers for model construction, we demonstrate how this compositionality may be exploited to reduce the state space of the CTMC. This leads to an exact aggregation based on lumpability. Moreover this technique, taking advantage of symmetries within the system, may be formally defined in terms of the PEPA description of the model. An equivalence relation, strong equivalence, developed as a process algebra bisimulation relation, is used to partition the derivation graph. 1