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61
The Complexity of Firstorder and Monadic Secondorder Logic Revisited
 Annals of Pure and Applied Logic
, 2002
"... The modelchecking problem for a logic L on a class C of structures asks whether a given Lsentence holds in a given structure in C. In this paper, we give superexponential lower bounds for fixedparameter tractable modelchecking problems for firstorder and monadic secondorder logic. We show tha ..."
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Cited by 63 (6 self)
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The modelchecking problem for a logic L on a class C of structures asks whether a given Lsentence holds in a given structure in C. In this paper, we give superexponential lower bounds for fixedparameter tractable modelchecking problems for firstorder and monadic secondorder logic. We show that unless PTIME = NP, the modelchecking problem for monadic secondorder logic on finite words is not solvable in time f(k) · p(n), for any elementary function f and any polynomial p. Here k denotes the size of the input sentence and n the size of the input word. We prove the same result for firstorder logic under a stronger complexity theoretic assumption from parameterized complexity theory. Furthermore, we prove that the modelchecking problems for firstorder logic on structures of degree 2 and of bounded degree d ≥ 3 are not solvable in time 2 2o(k) · p(n) (for degree 2) and 2 22o(k) · p(n) (for degree d), for any polynomial p, again under an assumption from parameterized complexity theory. We match these lower bounds by corresponding upper bounds. 1.
Bidimensionality: New Connections between FPT Algorithms and PTASs
"... We demonstrate a new connection between fixedparameter tractability and approximation algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems on planar graphs and their generalizations. Specifically, we extend the theory of socalled “bidimensional” problems to show that essentially all such problems ha ..."
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Cited by 36 (5 self)
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We demonstrate a new connection between fixedparameter tractability and approximation algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems on planar graphs and their generalizations. Specifically, we extend the theory of socalled “bidimensional” problems to show that essentially all such problems have both subexponential fixedparameter algorithms and PTASs. Bidimensional problems include e.g. feedback vertex set, vertex cover, minimum maximal matching, face cover, a series of vertexremoval problems, dominating set, edge dominating set, rdominating set, diameter, connected dominating set, connected edge dominating set, and connected rdominating set. We obtain PTASs for all of these problems in planar graphs and certain generalizations; of particular interest are our results for the two wellknown problems of connected dominating set and general feedback vertex set for planar graphs and their generalizations, for which PTASs were not known to exist. Our techniques generalize and in some sense unify the two main previous approaches for designing PTASs in planar graphs, namely, the LiptonTarjan separator approach [FOCS’77] and the Baker layerwise decomposition approach [FOCS’83]. In particular, we replace the notion of separators with a more powerful tool from the bidimensionality theory, enabling the first approach to apply to a much broader class of minimization problems than previously possible; and through the use of a structural backbone and thickening of layers we demonstrate how the second approach can be applied to problems with a “nonlocal” structure.
Fixed parameter algorithms for planar dominating set and related problems
, 2000
"... We present an algorithm that constructively produces a solution to the kdominating set problem for planar graphs in time O(c √ kn), where c = 36√34. To obtain this result, we show that the treewidth of a planar graph with domination number γ(G) is O ( � γ(G)), and that such a tree decomposition ca ..."
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Cited by 35 (10 self)
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We present an algorithm that constructively produces a solution to the kdominating set problem for planar graphs in time O(c √ kn), where c = 36√34. To obtain this result, we show that the treewidth of a planar graph with domination number γ(G) is O ( � γ(G)), and that such a tree decomposition can be found in O ( � γ(G)n) time. The same technique can be used to show that the kface cover problem (find a size k set of faces that cover all vertices of a given plane graph) can be solved √ k in O(c1 n + n2) time, where c1 = 236√34 and k is the size of the face cover set. Similar results can be obtained in the planar case for some variants of kdominating set, e.g., kindependent dominating set and kweighted dominating set. Keywords. NPcomplete problems, fixed parameter tractability, planar graphs, planar dominating set, face cover, outerplanarity, treewidth.
Fixedparameter algorithms for the (k, r)center in planar graphs and map graphs
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON ALGORITHMS
, 2003
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Locally excluding a minor
, 2007
"... We introduce the concept of locally excluded minors. Graph classes locally excluding a minor generalise the concept of excluded minor classes but also of graph classes with bounded local treewidth and graph classes with bounded expansion. We show that firstorder modelchecking is fixedparameter t ..."
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Cited by 34 (13 self)
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We introduce the concept of locally excluded minors. Graph classes locally excluding a minor generalise the concept of excluded minor classes but also of graph classes with bounded local treewidth and graph classes with bounded expansion. We show that firstorder modelchecking is fixedparameter tractable on any class of graphs locally excluding a minor. This strictly generalises analogous results by Flum and Grohe on excluded minor classes and Frick and Grohe on classes with bounded local treewidth. As an important consequence of the proof we obtain fixedparameter algorithms for problems such as dominating or independent set on graph classes excluding a minor, where now the parameter is the size of the dominating set and the excluded minor. We also study graph classes with excluded minors, where the minor may grow slowly with the size of the graphs and show that again, firstorder modelchecking is fixedparameter tractable on any such class of graphs.
The parameterized complexity of counting problems
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2002
"... We develop a parameterized complexity theory for counting problems. As the basis of this theory, we introduce a hierarchy of parameterized counting complexity classes #W[t], for t ≥ 1, that corresponds to Downey and Fellows’s Whierarchy [13] and show that a few central Wcompleteness results for de ..."
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Cited by 32 (0 self)
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We develop a parameterized complexity theory for counting problems. As the basis of this theory, we introduce a hierarchy of parameterized counting complexity classes #W[t], for t ≥ 1, that corresponds to Downey and Fellows’s Whierarchy [13] and show that a few central Wcompleteness results for decision problems translate to #Wcompleteness results for the corresponding counting problems. Counting complexity gets interesting with problems whose decision version is tractable, but whose counting version is hard. Our main result states that counting cycles and paths of length k in both directed and undirected graphs, parameterized by k, is #W[1]complete. This makes it highly unlikely that any of these problems is fixedparameter tractable, even though their decision versions are fixedparameter tractable. More explicitly, our result shows that most likely there is no f(k) · n calgorithm for counting cycles or paths of length k in a graph of size n for any computable function f: N → N and constant c, even though there is a 2 O(k) · n 2.376 algorithm for finding a cycle or path of length k [2]. 1
Fixedparameter tractability, definability, and model checking
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2001
"... In this article, we study parameterized complexity theory from the perspective of logic, or more specifically, descriptive complexity theory. We propose to consider parameterized modelchecking problems for various fragments of firstorder logic as generic parameterized problems and show how this ap ..."
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Cited by 30 (12 self)
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In this article, we study parameterized complexity theory from the perspective of logic, or more specifically, descriptive complexity theory. We propose to consider parameterized modelchecking problems for various fragments of firstorder logic as generic parameterized problems and show how this approach can be useful in studying both fixedparameter tractability and intractability. For example, we establish the equivalence between the modelchecking for existential firstorder logic, the homomorphism problem for relational structures, and the substructure isomorphism problem. Our main tractability result shows that modelchecking for firstorder formulas is fixedparameter tractable when restricted to a class of input structures with an excluded minor. On the intractability side, for everyØ�we prove an equivalence between modelchecking for firstorder formulas withØquantifier alternations and the parameterized halting problem for alternating Turing machines withØalternations. We discuss the close connection between this alternation hierarchy and Downey and Fellows ’ Whierarchy. On a more abstract level, we consider two forms of definability, called Fagin definability and slicewise definability, that are appropriate for describing parameterized problems. We give a characterization of the class FPT of all fixedparameter tractable problems in terms of slicewise definability in finite variable least fixedpoint logic, which is reminiscent of the ImmermanVardi Theorem characterizing the class PTIME in terms of definability in least fixedpoint logic. 1
Equivalence of Local Treewidth and Linear Local Treewidth and its Algorithmic Applications
 In Proceedings of the 15th ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA’04
, 2003
"... We solve an open problem posed by Eppstein in 1995 [14, 15] and reenforced by Grohe [16, 17] concerning locally bounded treewidth in minorclosed families of graphs. A graph has bounded local treewidth if the subgraph induced by vertices within distance r of any vertex has treewidth bounded by a f ..."
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Cited by 28 (11 self)
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We solve an open problem posed by Eppstein in 1995 [14, 15] and reenforced by Grohe [16, 17] concerning locally bounded treewidth in minorclosed families of graphs. A graph has bounded local treewidth if the subgraph induced by vertices within distance r of any vertex has treewidth bounded by a function of r (not n). Eppstein characterized minorclosed families of graphs with bounded local treewidth as precisely minorclosed families that minorexclude an apex graph, where an apex graph has one vertex whose removal leaves a planar graph. In particular, Eppstein showed that all apexminorfree graphs have bounded local treewidth, but his bound is doubly exponential in r, leaving open whether a tighter bound could be obtained. We improve this doubly exponential bound to a linear bound, which is optimal. In particular, any minorclosed graph family with bounded local treewidth has linear local treewidth. Our bound generalizes previously known linear bounds for special classes of graphs proved by several authors. As a consequence of our result, we obtain substantially faster polynomialtime approximation schemes for a broad class of problems in apexminorfree graphs, improving the running time from .