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50
THE PRIMALDUAL METHOD FOR APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS AND ITS APPLICATION TO NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEMS
"... The primaldual method is a standard tool in the design of algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems. This chapter shows how the primaldual method can be modified to provide good approximation algorithms for a wide variety of NPhard problems. We concentrate on results from recent researc ..."
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Cited by 120 (7 self)
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The primaldual method is a standard tool in the design of algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems. This chapter shows how the primaldual method can be modified to provide good approximation algorithms for a wide variety of NPhard problems. We concentrate on results from recent research applying the primaldual method to problems in network design.
Algorithmic Aspects of Topology Control Problems for Ad hoc Networks
, 2002
"... Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to the nodes of an ad~hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing th ..."
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Cited by 100 (6 self)
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Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to the nodes of an ad~hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm is presented for minimizing maximum power for a class of graph properties called monotone properties. The difficulty of generalizing the approach to properties that are not monotone is discussed. Problems involving the minimization of total power are known to be NPcomplete even for simple graph properties. A general approach that leads to an approximation algorithm for minimizing the total power for some monotone properties is presented. Using this approach, a new approximation algorithm for the problem of minimizing the total power for obtaining a 2nodeconnected graph is obtained. It is shown that this algorithm provides a constant performance guarantee. Experimental results from an implementation of the approximation algorithm are also presented.
Improved Approximation Algorithms for Uniform Connectivity Problems
 J. Algorithms
"... The problem of finding minimum weight spanning subgraphs with a given connectivity requirement is considered. The problem is NPhard when the connectivity requirement is greater than one. Polynomial time approximation algorithms for various weighted and unweighted connectivity problems are given. Th ..."
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Cited by 69 (2 self)
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The problem of finding minimum weight spanning subgraphs with a given connectivity requirement is considered. The problem is NPhard when the connectivity requirement is greater than one. Polynomial time approximation algorithms for various weighted and unweighted connectivity problems are given. The following results are presented: 1. For the unweighted kedgeconnectivity problem an approximation algorithm that achieves a performance ratio of 1.85 is described. This is the first polynomialtime algorithm that achieves a constant less than 2, for all k. 2. For the weighted kvertexconnectivity problem, a constant factor approximation algorithm is given assuming that the edgeweights satisfy the triangle inequality. This is the first constant factor approximation algorithm for this problem. 3. For the case of biconnectivity, with no assumptions about the weights of the edges, an algorithm that achieves a factor asymptotically approaching 2 is described. This matches the previous best...
Approximation Algorithms for MinimumCost kVertex Connected Subgraphs
 In 34th Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 2002
"... We present two new algorithms for the problem of nding a minimumcost kvertex connected spanning subgraph. The rst algorithm works on undirected graphs with at least 6k vertices and achieves an approximation of 6 times the kth harmonic number (which is O(log k)), The second algorithm works o ..."
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Cited by 59 (1 self)
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We present two new algorithms for the problem of nding a minimumcost kvertex connected spanning subgraph. The rst algorithm works on undirected graphs with at least 6k vertices and achieves an approximation of 6 times the kth harmonic number (which is O(log k)), The second algorithm works on any graph (directed or undirected) and gives an O( n=)approximation algorithm for any > 0 and k (1 )n. These algorithms improve on the previous best approximation factor (more than k=2). The latter algorithm also extends to other problems in network design with vertex connectivity requirements. Our main tools are setpair relaxations, a theorem of Mader's (in the undirected case) and iterative rounding (general case).
Approximation Algorithms for Finding Highly Connected Subgraphs
, 1996
"... Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Outline of Chapter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2 EdgeConnectivity Problems 3 2.1 Weighted EdgeConnectivity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Unweighted EdgeConnectivity : : : : : ..."
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Cited by 58 (1 self)
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Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Outline of Chapter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2 EdgeConnectivity Problems 3 2.1 Weighted EdgeConnectivity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Unweighted EdgeConnectivity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.2.1 2 EdgeConnectivity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.2.2 EdgeConnectivity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 3 VertexConnectivity Problems 11 3.1 Weighted VertexConnectivity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11 3.2 Unweighted VertexConnectivity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12 3.2.1 2 VertexConnectivity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Hardness of Approximation for VertexConnectivity NetworkDesign Problems
, 2002
"... In the survivable network design problem (SNDP), the goal is to find a minimumcost spanning subgraph satisfying certain connectivity requirements. We study the vertexconnectivity variant of SNDP in which the input specifies, for each pair of vertices, a required number of vertexdisjoint paths con ..."
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Cited by 40 (4 self)
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In the survivable network design problem (SNDP), the goal is to find a minimumcost spanning subgraph satisfying certain connectivity requirements. We study the vertexconnectivity variant of SNDP in which the input specifies, for each pair of vertices, a required number of vertexdisjoint paths connecting them.
A 2approximation algorithm for finding an optimum 3vertexconnected spanning subgraph
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1999
"... The problem of finding a minimum weight kvertex connected spanning subgraph in a graph G = (V, E) is considered. For k ≥ 2, this problem is known to be NPhard. Combining properties of inclusionminimal kvertex connected graphs and of koutconnected graphs (i.e., graphs which contain a vertex from ..."
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Cited by 33 (15 self)
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The problem of finding a minimum weight kvertex connected spanning subgraph in a graph G = (V, E) is considered. For k ≥ 2, this problem is known to be NPhard. Combining properties of inclusionminimal kvertex connected graphs and of koutconnected graphs (i.e., graphs which contain a vertex from which there exist k internally vertexdisjoint paths to every other vertex), we derive an auxiliary polynomial time algorithm for finding a ( ⌈ k ⌉ + 1)connected subgraph 2 with a weight at most twice the optimum to the original problem. In particular, we obtain a 2approximation algorithm for the case k = 3 of our problem. This improves the best previously known approximation ratio 3. The complexity of the algorithm is O(V  3 E) = O(V  5).
Iterative Rounding 2Approximation Algorithms for MinimumCost Vertex Connectivity Problems
 J. Comput. Syst. Sci
, 2002
"... The survivable network design problem (SNDP) is the following problem: given an undirected graph and values r ij for each pair of vertices i and j, find a minimumcost subgraph such that there are r ij disjoint paths between vertices i and j. In the edge connected version of this problem (ECSNDP) ..."
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Cited by 30 (0 self)
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The survivable network design problem (SNDP) is the following problem: given an undirected graph and values r ij for each pair of vertices i and j, find a minimumcost subgraph such that there are r ij disjoint paths between vertices i and j. In the edge connected version of this problem (ECSNDP) , these paths must be edgedisjoint. In the vertex connected version of the problem (VCSNDP), the paths must be vertex disjoint. The element connectivity problem (ELCSNDP, or ELC) is a problem of intermediate difficulty.
An Iterative Rounding 2Approximation Algorithm for the Element Connectivity Problem
 In 42nd Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2001
"... In the edge connected version of this problem (ECSNDP), these paths must be edgedisjoint. In the vertex connected version of the problem (VCSNDP), the paths must be vertex disjoint. Jain et al. [12] propose a version of the problem intermediate in difficulty to these two, called the element conne ..."
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Cited by 27 (2 self)
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In the edge connected version of this problem (ECSNDP), these paths must be edgedisjoint. In the vertex connected version of the problem (VCSNDP), the paths must be vertex disjoint. Jain et al. [12] propose a version of the problem intermediate in difficulty to these two, called the element connectivity problem (ELCSNDP, or ELC). In this problem, the set of vertices is partitioned into terminals and nonterminals. The edges and nonterminals of the graph are called elements. The values are only specified for pairs of terminals must be element disjoint. Thus if are still connected by a path in the network. These variants of SNDP are all known to be NPhard. The best known approximation algorithm for the ECSNDP has performance guarantee of 2 (due to Jain [11]), and iteratively rounds solutions to a linear programming relaxation of the problem. ELC has a primaldual  approximation algorithm, where (Jain et al. [12]). VCSNDP is not known to have a nontrivial approximation algorithm; however, recently Fleischer [7] has shown how to extend the technique of Jain [11] to give a 2approximation algorithm in the case that ! . She also shows that the same techniques will not work for VCSNDP for more general values of . In this paper we show that these techniques can be extended to a 2approximation algorithm for ELC. This gives the first constant approximation algorithm for a general survivable network design problem which allows node failures.
Constrained relay node placement in wireless sensor networks to meet connectivity and survivability requirements
 in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM
"... Abstract—One approach to prolong the lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is to deploy some relay nodes to communicate with the sensor nodes, other relay nodes, and the base stations. The relay node placement problem for wireless sensor networks is concerned with placing a minimum number of r ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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Abstract—One approach to prolong the lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is to deploy some relay nodes to communicate with the sensor nodes, other relay nodes, and the base stations. The relay node placement problem for wireless sensor networks is concerned with placing a minimum number of relay nodes into a wireless sensor network to meet certain connectivity or survivability requirements. Previous studies have concentrated on the unconstrained version of the problem in the sense that relay nodes can be placed anywhere. In practice, there may be some physical constraints on the placement of relay nodes. To address this issue, we study constrained versions of the relay node placement problem, where relay nodes can only be placed at a set of candidate locations. In the connected relay node placement problem, we want to place a minimum number of relay nodes to ensure that each sensor node is connected with a base station through a bidirectional path. In the survivable relay node placement problem, we want to place a minimum number of relay nodes to ensure that each sensor node is connected with two base stations (or the only base station in case there is only one base station) through two nodedisjoint bidirectional paths. For each of the two problems, we discuss its computational complexity and present a framework of polynomial time (1)approximation algorithms with small approximation ratios. Extensive numerical results show that our approximation algorithms can produce solutions very close to optimal solutions. Index Terms—Approximation algorithms, connectivity and survivability, relay node placement, wireless sensor networks (WSNs). I.