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19
On the Parameterized Complexity of Layered Graph Drawing
 PROC. 5TH ANNUAL EUROPEAN SYMP. ON ALGORITHMS (ESA '01
, 2001
"... We consider graph drawings in which vertices are assigned to layers and edges are drawn as straight linesegments between vertices on adjacent layers. We prove that graphs admitting crossingfree hlayer drawings (for fixed h) have bounded pathwidth. We then use a path decomposition as the basis for ..."
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Cited by 20 (8 self)
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We consider graph drawings in which vertices are assigned to layers and edges are drawn as straight linesegments between vertices on adjacent layers. We prove that graphs admitting crossingfree hlayer drawings (for fixed h) have bounded pathwidth. We then use a path decomposition as the basis for a lineartime algorithm to decide if a graph has a crossingfree hlayer drawing (for fixed h). This algorithm is extended to solve a large number of related problems, including allowing at most k crossings, or removing at most r edges to leave a crossingfree drawing (for fixed k or r). If the number of crossings or deleted edges is a nonfixed parameter then these problems are NPcomplete. For each setting, we can also permit downward drawings of directed graphs and drawings in which edges may span multiple layers, in which case the total span or the maximum span of edges can be minimized. In contrast to the socalled Sugiyama method for layered graph drawing, our algorithms do not assume a preassignment of the vertices to layers.
Radial Level Planarity Testing and Embedding in Linear Time
 Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications
, 2005
"... A graph with a given partition of the vertices on k concentric circles is radial level planar if there is a vertex permutation such that the edges can be routed strictly outwards without crossings. Radial level planarity extends level planarity, where the vertices are placed on k horizontal lines an ..."
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Cited by 20 (9 self)
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A graph with a given partition of the vertices on k concentric circles is radial level planar if there is a vertex permutation such that the edges can be routed strictly outwards without crossings. Radial level planarity extends level planarity, where the vertices are placed on k horizontal lines and the edges are routed strictly downwards without crossings. The extension is characterised by rings, which are level nonplanar biconnected components. Our main results are linear time algorithms for radial level planarity testing and for computing an embedding. We introduce PQRtrees as a new data structure where Rnodes and associated templates for their manipulation are introduced to deal with rings. Our algorithms extend level planarity testing and embedding algorithms which use PQtrees.
Characterization of unlabeled level planar trees
 14TH SYMPOSIUM ON GRAPH DRAWING (GD), VOLUME 4372 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2006
"... Consider a graph G drawn in the plane so that each vertex lies on a distinct horizontal line ℓj = {(x, j)  x ∈ R}. The bijection φ that maps the set of n vertices V to a set of distinct horizontal lines ℓj forms a labeling of the vertices. Such a graph G with the labeling φ is called an nlevel gr ..."
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Cited by 13 (7 self)
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Consider a graph G drawn in the plane so that each vertex lies on a distinct horizontal line ℓj = {(x, j)  x ∈ R}. The bijection φ that maps the set of n vertices V to a set of distinct horizontal lines ℓj forms a labeling of the vertices. Such a graph G with the labeling φ is called an nlevel graph and is said to be nlevel planar if it can be drawn with straightline edges and no crossings while keeping each vertex on its own level. In this paper, we consider the class of trees that are nlevel planar regardless of their labeling. We call such trees unlabeled level planar (ULP). Our contributions are threefold. First, we provide a complete characterization of ULP trees in terms of a pair of forbidden subtrees. Second, we show how to draw ULP trees in linear time. Third, we provide a linear time recognition algorithm for ULP trees.
An Approach for Mixed Upward Planarization
 In Proc. 7th International Workshop on Algorithms and Data Structures (WADS’01
, 2003
"... In this paper, we consider the problem of finding a mixed upward planarization of a mixed graph, i.e., a graph with directed and undirected edges. The problem is a generalization of the planarization problem for undirected graphs and is motivated by several applications in graph drawing. ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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In this paper, we consider the problem of finding a mixed upward planarization of a mixed graph, i.e., a graph with directed and undirected edges. The problem is a generalization of the planarization problem for undirected graphs and is motivated by several applications in graph drawing.
Constrained Simultaneous and Nearsimultaneous Embeddings
, 2007
"... A geometric simultaneous embedding of two graphs G1 = (V1, E1) and G2 = (V2, E2) with a bijective mapping of their vertex sets γ: V1 → V2 is a pair of planar straightline drawings Γ1 of G1 and Γ2 of G2, such that each vertex v2 = γ(v1) is mapped in Γ2 to the same point where v1 is mapped in Γ1, wh ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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A geometric simultaneous embedding of two graphs G1 = (V1, E1) and G2 = (V2, E2) with a bijective mapping of their vertex sets γ: V1 → V2 is a pair of planar straightline drawings Γ1 of G1 and Γ2 of G2, such that each vertex v2 = γ(v1) is mapped in Γ2 to the same point where v1 is mapped in Γ1, where v1 ∈ V1 and v2 ∈ V2. In this paper we examine several constrained versions and a relaxed version of the geometric simultaneous embedding problem. We show that if the input graphs are assumed to share no common edges this does not seem to yield large classes of graphs that can be simultaneously embedded. Further, if a prescribed combinatorial embedding for each input graph must be preserved, then we can answer some of the problems that are still open for geometric simultaneous embedding. Finally, we present some positive and negative results on the nearsimultaneous embedding problem, in which vertices are not forced to be placed exactly in the same, but just in “near” points in different drawings.
Minimum level nonplanar patterns for trees
 Proc. Graph Drawing, GD 2007, volume 4875 of LNCS
, 2007
"... Abstract. We add two minimum level nonplanar (MLNP) patterns for trees to the previous set of tree patterns given by Healy et al. [3]. Neither of these patterns match any of the previous patterns. We show that this new set of patterns completely characterize level planar trees. 1 ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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Abstract. We add two minimum level nonplanar (MLNP) patterns for trees to the previous set of tree patterns given by Healy et al. [3]. Neither of these patterns match any of the previous patterns. We show that this new set of patterns completely characterize level planar trees. 1
Simultaneous graph embedding with bends and circular arcs
 IN PROC. 14TH INTERN. SYMP. ON GRAPH DRAWING, VOLUME 4372 OF LNCS
, 2006
"... We consider the problem of simultaneous embedding of planar graphs. We demonstrate how to simultaneously embed a path and an nlevel planar graph and how to use radial embeddings for curvilinear simultaneous embeddings of a path and an outerplanar graph. We also show how to use starshaped levels to ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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We consider the problem of simultaneous embedding of planar graphs. We demonstrate how to simultaneously embed a path and an nlevel planar graph and how to use radial embeddings for curvilinear simultaneous embeddings of a path and an outerplanar graph. We also show how to use starshaped levels to find 2bends per path edge simultaneous embeddings of a path and an outerplanar graph. All embedding algorithms run in O(n) time.
Characterization of unlabeled level planar graphs
, 2006
"... Abstract. We present the set of planar graphs that always have a simultaneous geometric embedding with a strictly monotonic path on the same set of n vertices, for any of the n! possible mappings. These graphs are equivalent to the set of unlabeled level planar (ULP) graphs that are level planar ove ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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Abstract. We present the set of planar graphs that always have a simultaneous geometric embedding with a strictly monotonic path on the same set of n vertices, for any of the n! possible mappings. These graphs are equivalent to the set of unlabeled level planar (ULP) graphs that are level planar over all possible labelings. Our contributions are twofold. First, we provide linear time drawing algorithms for ULP graphs. Second, we provide a complete characterization of ULP graphs by showing that any other graph must contain a subgraph homeomorphic to one of seven forbidden graphs. 1
Linear time planarity testing and embedding of strongly connected cyclic level graphs
"... A level graph is a directed acyclic graph with a level assignment for each node. Such graphs play a prominent role in graph drawing. They express strict dependencies and occur in many areas, e.g., in scheduling problems and program inheritance structures. In this paper we extend level graphs to cyc ..."
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Cited by 5 (4 self)
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A level graph is a directed acyclic graph with a level assignment for each node. Such graphs play a prominent role in graph drawing. They express strict dependencies and occur in many areas, e.g., in scheduling problems and program inheritance structures. In this paper we extend level graphs to cyclic level graphs. Such graphs occur as repeating processes in cyclic scheduling, visual data mining, life sciences, and VLSI. We provide a complete study of strongly connected cyclic level graphs. In particular, we present a linear time algorithm for the planarity testing and embedding problem, and we characterize forbidden subgraphs. Our results generalize earlier work on level graphs.
Track Planarity Testing and Embedding
 PROC. SOFTWARE SEMINAR: THEORY AND PRACTICE OF INFORMATICS, SOFSEM 2004
, 2004
"... A track graph is a graph with its vertex set partitioned into horizontal levels. It is track planar if there are permutations of the vertices on each level such that all edges can be drawn as weak monotone curves without crossings. The novelty and generalisation over level planar graphs is that ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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A track graph is a graph with its vertex set partitioned into horizontal levels. It is track planar if there are permutations of the vertices on each level such that all edges can be drawn as weak monotone curves without crossings. The novelty and generalisation over level planar graphs is that horizontal edges connecting consecutive vertices on the same level are allowed. We show that track planarity can be reduced to level planarity in linear time. Hence, there are time algorithms for the track planarity test and for the computation of a track planar embedding.