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230
A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and PublicKey Cryptosystems
 Communications of the ACM
, 1978
"... An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key. This has two important consequences: 1. Couriers or other secure means are not needed to transmit keys, since a message can be enciphered usin ..."
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Cited by 3188 (28 self)
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An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key. This has two important consequences: 1. Couriers or other secure means are not needed to transmit keys, since a message can be enciphered using an encryption key publicly revealed by the intended recipient. Only he can decipher the message, since only he knows the corresponding decryption key. 2. A message can be "signed" using a privately held decryption key. Anyone can verify this signature using the corresponding publicly revealed encryption key. Signatures cannot be forged, and a signer cannot later deny the validity of his signature. This has obvious applications in "electronic mail" and "electronic funds transfer" systems. A message is encrypted by representing it as a number M, raising M to a publicly specified power e, and then taking the remainder when the result is divided by the publicly specified product, n, of two lar...
Algebraic Methods for Interactive Proof Systems
, 1990
"... We present a new algebraic technique for the construction of interactive proof systems. We use our technique to prove that every language in the polynomialtime hierarchy has an interactive proof system. This technique played a pivotal role in the recent proofs that IP=PSPACE (Shamir) and that MIP ..."
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Cited by 312 (29 self)
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We present a new algebraic technique for the construction of interactive proof systems. We use our technique to prove that every language in the polynomialtime hierarchy has an interactive proof system. This technique played a pivotal role in the recent proofs that IP=PSPACE (Shamir) and that MIP=NEXP (Babai, Fortnow and Lund).
Noninteractive ZeroKnowledge
 SIAM J. COMPUTING
, 1991
"... This paper investigates the possibility of disposing of interaction between prover and verifier in a zeroknowledge proof if they share beforehand a short random string. Without any assumption, it is proven that noninteractive zeroknowledge proofs exist for some numbertheoretic languages for which ..."
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Cited by 199 (20 self)
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This paper investigates the possibility of disposing of interaction between prover and verifier in a zeroknowledge proof if they share beforehand a short random string. Without any assumption, it is proven that noninteractive zeroknowledge proofs exist for some numbertheoretic languages for which no efficient algorithm is known. If deciding quadratic residuosity (modulo composite integers whose factorization is not known) is computationally hard, it is shown that the NPcomplete language of satisfiability also possesses noninteractive zeroknowledge proofs.
Using Secure Coprocessors
, 1994
"... The views and conclusions in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policies or endorsements of any of the research sponsors. How do we build distributed systems that are secure? Cryptographic techniques can be used to secure the communications between p ..."
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Cited by 161 (8 self)
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The views and conclusions in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policies or endorsements of any of the research sponsors. How do we build distributed systems that are secure? Cryptographic techniques can be used to secure the communications between physically separated systems, but this is not enough: we must be able to guarantee the privacy of the cryptographic keys and the integrity of the cryptographic functions, in addition to the integrity of the security kernel and access control databases we have on the machines. Physical security is a central assumption upon which secure distributed systems are built; without this foundation even the best cryptosystem or the most secure kernel will crumble. In this thesis, I address the distributed security problem by proposing the addition of a small, physically secure hardware module, a secure coprocessor, to standard workstations and PCs. My central axiom is that secure coprocessors are able to maintain the privacy of the data they process. This thesis attacks the distributed security problem from multiple sides. First, I analyze the security properties of existing system components, both at the hardware and
On Hiding Information from an Oracle
, 1989
"... : We consider the problem of computing with encrypted data. Player A wishes to know the value f(x) for some x but lacks the power to compute it. Player B has the power to compute f and is willing to send f(y) to A if she sends him y, for any y. Informally, an encryption scheme for the problem f is a ..."
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Cited by 131 (15 self)
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: We consider the problem of computing with encrypted data. Player A wishes to know the value f(x) for some x but lacks the power to compute it. Player B has the power to compute f and is willing to send f(y) to A if she sends him y, for any y. Informally, an encryption scheme for the problem f is a method by which A, using her inferior resources, can transform the cleartext instance x into an encrypted instance y, obtain f(y) from B, and infer f(x) from f(y) in such a way that B cannot infer x from y. When such an encryption scheme exists, we say that f is encryptable. The framework defined in this paper enables us to prove precise statements about what an encrypted instance hides and what it leaks, in an informationtheoretic sense. Our definitions are cast in the language of probability theory and do not involve assumptions such as the intractability of factoring or the existence of oneway functions. We use our framework to describe encryption schemes for some wellknown function...
Dyad: A System for Using Physically Secure Coprocessors
 Proceedings of the Joint HarvardMIT Workshop on Technological Strategies for the Protection of Intellectual Property in the Network Multimedia Environment
, 1991
"... The Dyad project at Carnegie Mellon University is using physically secure coprocessors to achieve new protocols and systems addressing a number of perplexing security problems. These coprocessors can be produced as boards or integrated circuit chips and can be directly inserted in standard workstati ..."
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Cited by 89 (1 self)
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The Dyad project at Carnegie Mellon University is using physically secure coprocessors to achieve new protocols and systems addressing a number of perplexing security problems. These coprocessors can be produced as boards or integrated circuit chips and can be directly inserted in standard workstations or PCstyle computers. This paper presents a set of security problems and easily implementable solutions that exploit the power of physically secure coprocessors: (1) protecting the integrity of publicly accessible workstations, (2) tamperproof accounting/audit trails, (3) copy protection, and (4) electronic currency without centralized servers. We outline the architectural requirements for the use of secure coprocessors. 1 Introduction and Motivation The Dyad project at Carnegie Mellon University is using physically secure coprocessors to achieve new protocols and systems addressing a number of perplexing security problems. These coprocessors can be produced as boards or integrated ...
Inductive Inference, DFAs and Computational Complexity
 2nd Int. Workshop on Analogical and Inductive Inference (AII
, 1989
"... This paper surveys recent results concerning the inference of deterministic finite automata (DFAs). The results discussed determine the extent to which DFAs can be feasibly inferred, and highlight a number of interesting approaches in computational learning theory. 1 ..."
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Cited by 83 (1 self)
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This paper surveys recent results concerning the inference of deterministic finite automata (DFAs). The results discussed determine the extent to which DFAs can be feasibly inferred, and highlight a number of interesting approaches in computational learning theory. 1
Using NameBased Mappings to Increase Hit Rates
 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING
, 1997
"... Clusters of identical intermediate servers are often created to improve availability and robustness in many domains. The use of proxy servers for the WWW and of Rendezvous Points in multicast routing are two such situations. However, this approach can be inefficient if identical requests are receive ..."
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Cited by 75 (6 self)
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Clusters of identical intermediate servers are often created to improve availability and robustness in many domains. The use of proxy servers for the WWW and of Rendezvous Points in multicast routing are two such situations. However, this approach can be inefficient if identical requests are received and processed by multiple servers. We present an analysis of this problem, and develop a method called the Highest Random Weight (HRW) Mapping that eliminates these difficulties. Given an object name and a set of servers, HRW maps a request to a server using the object name, rather than any a priori knowledge of server states. Since HRW always maps a given object name to the same server within a given cluster, it may be used locally at client sites to achieve consensus on objectserver mappings. We present an analysis of HRW and validate it with simulation results showing that it gives faster service times than traditional request allocation schemes such as roundrobin or leastloaded, and...
Adaptive Security for Multilayer Adhoc Networks
 SPECIAL ISSUE OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND MOBILE COMPUTING
, 2002
"... Secure communication is critical in military environments where the network infrastructure is vulnerable to various attacks and compromises. A conventional centralized solution breaks down when the security servers are destroyed by the enemies. In this paper we design and evaluate a security framewo ..."
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Cited by 46 (3 self)
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Secure communication is critical in military environments where the network infrastructure is vulnerable to various attacks and compromises. A conventional centralized solution breaks down when the security servers are destroyed by the enemies. In this paper we design and evaluate a security framework for multilayer adhoc wireless networks with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In battlefields, the framework adapts to the contingent damages on the network infrastructure. Depending
Practical Asynchronous Neighbor Discovery and Rendezvous for Mobile Sensing Applications
 In SenSys’08
, 2008
"... We present Disco, an asynchronous neighbor discovery and rendezvous protocol that allows two or more nodes to operate their radios at low duty cycles (e.g. 1%) and yet still discover and communicate with one another during infrequent, opportunistic encounters without requiring any prior synchronizat ..."
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Cited by 40 (6 self)
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We present Disco, an asynchronous neighbor discovery and rendezvous protocol that allows two or more nodes to operate their radios at low duty cycles (e.g. 1%) and yet still discover and communicate with one another during infrequent, opportunistic encounters without requiring any prior synchronization information. The key challenge is to operate the radio at a low duty cycle but still ensure that discovery is fast, reliable, and predictable over a range of operating conditions. Disco nodes pick a pair of prime numbers such that the sum of their reciprocals is equal to the desired radio duty cycle. Each node increments a local counter with a globallyfixed period. If a node’s local counter value is divisible by either of its primes, then the node turns on its radio for one period. This protocol ensures that two nodes will have some overlapping radio ontime within a bounded number of periods, even if nodes independently set their own duty cycle. Once a neighbor is discovered, and its wakeup schedule known, rendezvous is just a matter of being awake during the neighbor’s next wakeup period, for synchronous rendezvous, or during an overlapping wake period, for asynchronous rendezvous.