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159
Randomized Algorithms
, 1995
"... Randomized algorithms, once viewed as a tool in computational number theory, have by now found widespread application. Growth has been fueled by the two major benefits of randomization: simplicity and speed. For many applications a randomized algorithm is the fastest algorithm available, or the simp ..."
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Cited by 1863 (38 self)
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Randomized algorithms, once viewed as a tool in computational number theory, have by now found widespread application. Growth has been fueled by the two major benefits of randomization: simplicity and speed. For many applications a randomized algorithm is the fastest algorithm available, or the simplest, or both. A randomized algorithm is an algorithm that uses random numbers to influence the choices it makes in the course of its computation. Thus its behavior (typically quantified as running time or quality of output) varies from
The NPcompleteness column: an ongoing guide
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1985
"... This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co ..."
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Cited by 188 (0 self)
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This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as ‘‘[G&J]’’; previous columns will be referred to by their dates). A background equivalent to that provided by [G&J] is assumed, and, when appropriate, crossreferences will be given to that book and the list of problems (NPcomplete and harder) presented there. Readers who have results they would like mentioned (NPhardness, PSPACEhardness, polynomialtimesolvability, etc.) or open problems they would like publicized, should
Unbiased Bits from Sources of Weak Randomness and Probabilistic Communication Complexity
, 1988
"... , Introduction and References only) Benny Chor Oded Goldreich MIT \Gamma Laboratory for Computer Science Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ABSTRACT \Gamma A new model for weak random physical sources is presented. The new model strictly generalizes previous models (e.g. the Santha and Vazirani model [2 ..."
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Cited by 182 (4 self)
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, Introduction and References only) Benny Chor Oded Goldreich MIT \Gamma Laboratory for Computer Science Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ABSTRACT \Gamma A new model for weak random physical sources is presented. The new model strictly generalizes previous models (e.g. the Santha and Vazirani model [24]). The sources considered output strings according to probability distributions in which no single string is too probable. The new model provides a fruitful viewpoint on problems studied previously as: ffl Extracting almost perfect bits from sources of weak randomness: the question of possibility as well as the question of efficiency of such extraction schemes are addressed. ffl Probabilistic Communication Complexity: it is shown that most functions have linear communication complexity in a very strong probabilistic sense. ffl Robustness of BPP with respect to sources of weak randomness (generalizing a result of Vazirani and Vazirani [27]). The paper has appeared in SIAM Journal o...
The Complexity of Stochastic Games
 Information and Computation
, 1992
"... We consider the complexity of stochastic games  simple games of chance played by two players. We show that the problem of deciding which player has the greatest chance of winning the game is in the class NP " coNP. 1 Introduction We consider the complexity of a natural combinatorial problem, tha ..."
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Cited by 152 (2 self)
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We consider the complexity of stochastic games  simple games of chance played by two players. We show that the problem of deciding which player has the greatest chance of winning the game is in the class NP " coNP. 1 Introduction We consider the complexity of a natural combinatorial problem, that of deciding the outcome of a special kind of stochastic game. A simple stochastic game (SSG) is a directed graph with three types of vertices, called max, min and average vertices. There is a special start vertex and two special sink vertices, called the 0sink and the 1sink. For simplicity, we assume that all vertices have exactly two (not necessarily distinct) neighbors, except for the sink vertices, which have no neighbors. The graph models a game between two players, 0 and 1. In the game, a token is initially placed on the start vertex, and at each step of the game the token is moved from a vertex to one of its neighbors, according to the following rules: At a min vertex, player 0 cho...
Oracle quantum computing
 Brassard & U.Vazirani, Strengths and weaknesses of quantum computing
, 1994
"... \Because nature isn't classical, dammit..." ..."
Dispersers, Deterministic Amplification, and Weak Random Sources.
, 1989
"... We use a certain type of expanding bipartite graphs, called disperser graphs, to design procedures for picking highly correlated samples from a finite set, with the property that the probability of hitting any sufficiently large subset is high. These procedures require a relatively small number of r ..."
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Cited by 90 (11 self)
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We use a certain type of expanding bipartite graphs, called disperser graphs, to design procedures for picking highly correlated samples from a finite set, with the property that the probability of hitting any sufficiently large subset is high. These procedures require a relatively small number of random bits and are robust with respect to the quality of the random bits. Using these sampling procedures to sample random inputs of polynomial time probabilistic algorithms, we can simulate the performance of some probabilistic algorithms with less random bits or with low quality random bits. We obtain the following results: 1. The error probability of an RP or BPP algorithm that operates with a constant error bound and requires n random bits, can be made exponentially small (i.e. 2 \Gamman ), with only (3 + ffl)n random bits, as opposed to standard amplification techniques that require \Omega\Gamma n 2 ) random bits for the same task. This result is nearly optimal, since the informati...
PP is Closed Under Intersection
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1991
"... In his seminal paper on probabilistic Turing machines, Gill [13] asked whether the class PP is closed under intersection and union. We give a positive answer to this question. We also show that PP is closed under a variety of polynomialtime truthtable reductions. Consequences in complexity theory ..."
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Cited by 86 (9 self)
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In his seminal paper on probabilistic Turing machines, Gill [13] asked whether the class PP is closed under intersection and union. We give a positive answer to this question. We also show that PP is closed under a variety of polynomialtime truthtable reductions. Consequences in complexity theory include the definite collapse and (assuming P<F NaN> 6= PP) separation of certain query hierarchies over PP. Similar techniques allow us to combine several threshold gates into a single threshold gate. Consequences in the study of circuits include the simulation of circuits with a small number of threshold gates by circuits having only a single threshold gate at the root (perceptrons), and a lower bound on the number of threshold gates needed to compute the parity function. 1. Introduction The class PP was defined in 1972 by John Gill [13, 14] and independently by Janos Simon [26] in 1974. PP is the class of languages accepted by a polynomialtime bounded nondeterministic Turing machine t...
On the Computational Complexity of Approximating Distributions by Probabilistic Automata
 Machine Learning
, 1990
"... We introduce a rigorous performance criterion for training algorithms for probabilistic automata (PAs) and hidden Markov models (HMMs), used extensively for speech recognition, and analyze the complexity of the training problem as a computational problem. The PA training problem is the problem of ap ..."
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Cited by 85 (0 self)
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We introduce a rigorous performance criterion for training algorithms for probabilistic automata (PAs) and hidden Markov models (HMMs), used extensively for speech recognition, and analyze the complexity of the training problem as a computational problem. The PA training problem is the problem of approximating an arbitrary, unknown source distribution by distributions generated by a PA. We investigate the following question about this important, wellstudied problem: Does there exist an efficient training algorithm such that the trained PAs provably converge to a model close to an optimum one with high confidence, after only a feasibly small set of training data? We model this problem in the framework of computational learning theory and analyze the sample as well as computational complexity. We show that the number of examples required for training PAs is moderate  essentially linear in the number of transition probabilities to be trained and a lowdegree polynomial in the example l...
The Computational Complexity of Probabilistic Planning
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1998
"... We examine the computational complexity of testing and finding small plans in probabilistic planning domains with both flat and propositional representations. The complexity of plan evaluation and existence varies with the plan type sought; we examine totally ordered plans, acyclic plans, and loopin ..."
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Cited by 77 (5 self)
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We examine the computational complexity of testing and finding small plans in probabilistic planning domains with both flat and propositional representations. The complexity of plan evaluation and existence varies with the plan type sought; we examine totally ordered plans, acyclic plans, and looping plans, and partially ordered plans under three natural definitions of plan value. We show that problems of interest are complete for a variety of complexity classes: PL, P, NP, coNP, PP, NP PP, coNP PP , and PSPACE. In the process of proving that certain planning problems are complete for NP PP , we introduce a new basic NP PP complete problem, EMajsat, which generalizes the standard Boolean satisfiability problem to computations involving probabilistic quantities; our results suggest that the development of good heuristics for EMajsat could be important for the creation of efficient algorithms for a wide variety of problems.