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57
Faster ShortestPath Algorithms for Planar Graphs
 STOC 94
, 1994
"... We give a lineartime algorithm for singlesource shortest paths in planar graphs with nonnegative edgelengths. Our algorithm also yields a lineartime algorithm for maximum flow in a planar graph with the source and sink on the same face. The previous best algorithms for these problems required\O ..."
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Cited by 204 (17 self)
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We give a lineartime algorithm for singlesource shortest paths in planar graphs with nonnegative edgelengths. Our algorithm also yields a lineartime algorithm for maximum flow in a planar graph with the source and sink on the same face. The previous best algorithms for these problems required\Omega\Gamma n p log n) time where n is the number of nodes in the input graph. For the case where negative edgelengths are allowed, we give an algorithm requiring O(n 4=3 log nL) time, where L is the absolute value of the most negative length. Previous algorithms for shortest paths with negative edgelengths required \Omega\Gamma n 3=2 ) time. Our shortestpath algorithm yields an O(n 4=3 log n)time algorithm for finding a perfect matching in a planar bipartite graph. A similar improvement is obtained for maximum flow in a directed planar graph.
Dynamic and efficient key management for access hierarchies
 In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security
, 2005
"... Hierarchies arise in the context of access control whenever the user population can be modeled as a set of partially ordered classes (represented as a directed graph). A user with access privileges for a class obtains access to objects stored at that class and all descendant classes in the hierarchy ..."
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Cited by 119 (7 self)
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Hierarchies arise in the context of access control whenever the user population can be modeled as a set of partially ordered classes (represented as a directed graph). A user with access privileges for a class obtains access to objects stored at that class and all descendant classes in the hierarchy. The problem of key management for such hierarchies then consists of assigning a key to each class in the hierarchy so that keys for descendant classes can be obtained via efficient key derivation. We propose a solution to this problem with the following properties: (1) the space complexity of the public information is the same as that of storing the hierarchy; (2) the private information at a class consists of a single key associated with that class; (3) updates (i.e., revocations and additions) are handled locally in the hierarchy; (4) the scheme is provably secure against collusion; and (5) each node can derive the key of any of its descendant with a number of symmetrickey operations bounded by the length of the path between the nodes. Whereas many previous schemes had some of these properties, ours is the first that satisfies all of them. The security of our scheme is based on pseudorandom functions, without reliance on the Random Oracle Model. 18 Portions of this work were supported by Grants IIS0325345 and CNS06274488 from the
A Randomized Parallel 3D Convex Hull Algorithm For Coarse Grained Multicomputers
 In Proc. ACM Symp. on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures
, 1995
"... We present a randomized parallel algorithm for constructing the 3D convex hull on a generic pprocessor coarse grained multicomputer with arbitrary interconection network and n=p local memory per processor, where n=p p 2+ffl (for some arbitrarily small ffl ? 0). For any given set of n points in ..."
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Cited by 50 (10 self)
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We present a randomized parallel algorithm for constructing the 3D convex hull on a generic pprocessor coarse grained multicomputer with arbitrary interconection network and n=p local memory per processor, where n=p p 2+ffl (for some arbitrarily small ffl ? 0). For any given set of n points in 3space, the algorithm computes the 3D convex hull, with high probaility, in O( n log n p ) local computation time and O(1) communication phases with at most O(n=p) data sent/received by each processor. That is, with high probability, the algorithm computes the 3D convex hull of an arbitrary point set in time O( n logn p + \Gamma n;p ), where \Gamma n;p denotes the time complexity of one communication phase. The assumption n p p 2+ffl implies a coarse grained, limited parallelism, model which is applicable to most commercially available multiprocessors. In the terminology of the BSP model, our algorithm requires, with high probability, O(1) supersteps, synchronization period L = \Th...
Planar spanners and approximate shortest path queries among obstacles
 in the plane, Proc. 4th European Sympos. Algorithms
, 1996
"... Abstract. We consider the problem of finding an obstacleavoiding path between two points s and t in the plane, amidst a set of disjoint polygonal obstacles with a total of n vertices. The length of this path should be within a small constant factor c of the length of the shortest possible obstacle ..."
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Cited by 49 (15 self)
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Abstract. We consider the problem of finding an obstacleavoiding path between two points s and t in the plane, amidst a set of disjoint polygonal obstacles with a total of n vertices. The length of this path should be within a small constant factor c of the length of the shortest possible obstacleavoiding st path measured in the Lvmetric. Such an approximate shortest path is called a cshort path, or a short path with stretch]actor c. The goal is to preprocess the obstaclescattered plane by creating an efficient data structure that enables fast reporting of a cshort path (or its length). In this paper, we give a family of algorithms for the above problem that achieve an interesting tradeoff between the stretch factor, the query time and the preprocessing bounds. Our main results are algorithms that achieve logarithmic length query time, after subquadratic time and space preprocessing. 1
Parametric and Kinetic Minimum Spanning Trees
"... We consider the parametric minimum spanning treeproblem, in which we are given a graph with edge weights that are linear functions of a parameter * and wish tocompute the sequence of minimum spanning trees generated as * varies. We also consider the kinetic minimumspanning tree problem, in which * r ..."
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Cited by 33 (9 self)
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We consider the parametric minimum spanning treeproblem, in which we are given a graph with edge weights that are linear functions of a parameter * and wish tocompute the sequence of minimum spanning trees generated as * varies. We also consider the kinetic minimumspanning tree problem, in which * represents time and the graph is subject in addition to changes such as edge insertions, deletions, and modifications of the weight functions as time progresses. We solve both problems in time O(n2=3 log4=3 n) per combinatorial change in the tree (or randomized O(n2=3 log n) per change). Our time bounds reduce to O(n1=2 log3=2 n) per change (O(n1=2 log n) randomized) for planar graphs or other minorclosed families of graphs, and O(n1=4 log3=2 n) per change (O(n1=4 log n) randomized) for planar graphs with weight changes but no insertions or deletions.
On External Memory MST, SSSP and Multiway Planar Graph Separation (Extended Abstract)
, 2000
"... Recently external memory graph algorithms have received considerable attention because massive graphs arise naturally in many applications involving massive data sets. Even though a large number of I/Oefficient graph algorithms have been developed, a number of fundamental problems still remain ..."
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Cited by 32 (11 self)
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Recently external memory graph algorithms have received considerable attention because massive graphs arise naturally in many applications involving massive data sets. Even though a large number of I/Oefficient graph algorithms have been developed, a number of fundamental problems still remain open. In this paper we develop improved algorithms for the problem of computing a minimum spanning tree of a general graph G = (V; E), as well as new algorithms for the single source shortest paths and the multiway graph separation problems on planar graphs.
On externalmemory MST, SSSP and multiway planar graph separation
 In Proc. 8th Scandinavian Workshop on Algorithmic Theory, volume 1851 of LNCS
, 2000
"... Recently external memory graph algorithms have received considerable attention because massive graphs arise naturally in many applications involving massive data sets. Even though a large number of I/Oefficient graph algorithms have been developed, a number of fundamental problems still remain open ..."
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Cited by 32 (2 self)
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Recently external memory graph algorithms have received considerable attention because massive graphs arise naturally in many applications involving massive data sets. Even though a large number of I/Oefficient graph algorithms have been developed, a number of fundamental problems still remain open. In this paper we develop an improved algorithm for the problem of computing a minimum spanning tree of a general graph, as well as new algorithms for the single source shortest paths and the multiway graph separation problems on planar graphs.
Homology flows, cohomology cuts
 ACM SYMPOSIUM ON THEORY OF COMPUTING
, 2009
"... We describe the first algorithms to compute maximum flows in surfaceembedded graphs in nearlinear time. Specifically, given an undirected graph embedded on an orientable surface of genus g, with two specified vertices s and t, we can compute a maximum (s, t)flow in O(g 7 n log 2 n log 2 C) time fo ..."
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Cited by 30 (10 self)
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We describe the first algorithms to compute maximum flows in surfaceembedded graphs in nearlinear time. Specifically, given an undirected graph embedded on an orientable surface of genus g, with two specified vertices s and t, we can compute a maximum (s, t)flow in O(g 7 n log 2 n log 2 C) time for integer capacities that sum to C, or in (g log n) O(g) n time for real capacities. Except for the special case of planar graphs, for which an O(n log n)time algorithm has been known for 20 years, the best previous time bounds for maximum flows in surfaceembedded graphs follow from algorithms for general sparse graphs. Our key insight is to optimize the relative homology class of the flow, rather than directly optimizing the flow itself. A dual formulation of our algorithm computes the minimumcost cycle or circulation in a given (real or integer) homology class.
Linear Algorithms for Partitioning Embedded Graphs of Bounded Genus
 SIAM Journal of Discrete Mathematics
, 1996
"... This paper develops new techniques for constructing separators for graphs embedded on surfaces of bounded genus. For any arbitrarily small positive " we show that any nvertex graph G of genus g can be divided in O(n + g) time into components whose sizes do not exceed "n by removing a set ..."
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Cited by 29 (4 self)
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This paper develops new techniques for constructing separators for graphs embedded on surfaces of bounded genus. For any arbitrarily small positive " we show that any nvertex graph G of genus g can be divided in O(n + g) time into components whose sizes do not exceed "n by removing a set C of O( p (g + 1=")n) vertices. Our result improves the best previous ones with respect to the size of C and the time complexity of the algorithm. Moreover, we show that one can cut off from G a piece of no more than (1 \Gamma ")n vertices by removing a set of O( p n"(g" + 1) vertices. Both results are optimal up to a constant factor. Keywords: graph separator, graph genus, algorithm, divideandconquer, topological graph theory AMS(MOS) subject classifications: 05C10, 05C85, 68R10 1 Bulgarian Academy of Sci., CICT, G.Bonchev 25A, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria 2 Department of Comp.Sci.,Rice University, P.O.Box 1892, Houston, Texas 77251, USA 1 Introduction Let S be a class of graphs closed under t...
Probabilistic path queries in road networks: traffic uncertainty aware path selection
 In EDBT
, 2010
"... Path queries such as “finding the shortest path in travel time from my hotel to the airport ” are heavily used in many applications of road networks. Currently, simple statistic aggregates such as the average travel time between two vertices are often used to answer path queries. However, such simpl ..."
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Cited by 25 (0 self)
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Path queries such as “finding the shortest path in travel time from my hotel to the airport ” are heavily used in many applications of road networks. Currently, simple statistic aggregates such as the average travel time between two vertices are often used to answer path queries. However, such simple aggregates often cannot capture the uncertainty inherent in traffic. In this paper, we study how to take traffic uncertainty into account in answering path queries in road networks. To capture the uncertainty in traffic such as the travel time between two vertices, the weight of an edge is modeled as a random variable and is approximated by a set of samples. We propose three novel types of probabilistic path queries using basic probability principles: (1) a probabilistic path query like “what are the paths from my hotel to the airport whose travel time is at most 30 minutes with a probability of at least 90%?”; (2) a weightthreshold topk path query like “what are the top3 paths from my hotel to the airport with the highest probabilities to take at most 30 minutes?”; and (3) a probabilitythreshold topk path query like “what are the top3 shortest paths from my hotel to the airport whose travel time is guaranteed by a probability of at least 90%? ” To evaluate probabilistic path queries efficiently, we develop three efficient probability calculation methods: an exact algorithm, a constant factor approximation method and a sampling based approach. Moreover, we devise the P * algorithm, a bestfirst search method based on a novel hierarchical partition tree index and three effective heuristic evaluation functions. An extensive empirical study using real road networks and synthetic data sets shows the effectiveness of the proposed path queries and the efficiency of the query evaluation methods.