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On the Computational Complexity of Upward and Rectilinear Planarity Testing (Extended Abstract)
, 1994
"... A directed graph is upward planar if it can be drawn in the plane such that every edge is a monotonically increasing curve in the vertical direction, and no two edges cross. An undirected graph is rectilinear planar if it can be drawn in the plane such that every edge is a horizontal or vertical se ..."
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Cited by 82 (4 self)
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A directed graph is upward planar if it can be drawn in the plane such that every edge is a monotonically increasing curve in the vertical direction, and no two edges cross. An undirected graph is rectilinear planar if it can be drawn in the plane such that every edge is a horizontal or vertical segment, and no two edges cross. Testing upward planarity and rectilinear planarity are fundamental problems in the effective visualization of various graph and network structures. In this paper we show that upward planarity testing and rectilinear planarity testing are NPcomplete problems. We also show that it is NPhard to approximate the minimum number of bends in a planar orthogonal drawing of an nvertex graph with an O(n 1\Gammaffl ) error, for any ffl ? 0.
Upward Planarity Testing
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1995
"... Acyclic digraphs, such as the covering digraphs of ordered sets, are usually drawn upward, i.e., with the edges monotonically increasing in the vertical direction. A digraph is upward planar if it admits an upward planar drawing. In this survey paper, we overview the literature on the problem of upw ..."
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Cited by 81 (15 self)
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Acyclic digraphs, such as the covering digraphs of ordered sets, are usually drawn upward, i.e., with the edges monotonically increasing in the vertical direction. A digraph is upward planar if it admits an upward planar drawing. In this survey paper, we overview the literature on the problem of upward planarity testing. We present several characterizations of upward planarity and describe upward planarity testing algorithms for special classes of digraphs, such as embedded digraphs and singlesource digraphs. We also sketch the proof of NPcompleteness of upward planarity testing.
Optimal upward planarity testing of singlesource digraphs
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1998
"... Abstract. A digraph is upward planar if it has a planar drawing such that all the edges are monotone with respect to the vertical direction. Testing upward planarity and constructing upward planar drawings is important for displaying hierarchical network structures, which frequently arise in softwar ..."
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Cited by 34 (4 self)
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Abstract. A digraph is upward planar if it has a planar drawing such that all the edges are monotone with respect to the vertical direction. Testing upward planarity and constructing upward planar drawings is important for displaying hierarchical network structures, which frequently arise in software engineering, project management, and visual languages. In this paper we investigate upward planarity testing of singlesource digraphs; we provide a new combinatorial characterization of upward planarity and give an optimal algorithm for upward planarity testing. Our algorithm tests whether a singlesource digraph with n vertices is upward planar in O(n) sequential time, and in O(log n) time on a CRCW PRAM with n log log n / log n processors, using O(n) space. The algorithm also constructs an upward planar drawing if the test is successful. The previously known best result is an O(n2)time algorithm by Hutton and Lubiw [Proc. 2nd ACM–SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1991, pp. 203–211]. No efficient parallel algorithms for upward planarity testing were previously known.
Upward Planar Drawing of Single Source Acyclic Digraphs
, 1990
"... A upward plane drawing of a directed acyclic graph is a straight line drawing in the Euclidean plane such that all directed arcs point upwards. Thomassen [30] has given a nonalgorithmic, graphtheoretic characterization of those directed graphs with a single source that admit an upward drawing. We ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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A upward plane drawing of a directed acyclic graph is a straight line drawing in the Euclidean plane such that all directed arcs point upwards. Thomassen [30] has given a nonalgorithmic, graphtheoretic characterization of those directed graphs with a single source that admit an upward drawing. We present an efficient algorithm to test whether a given singlesource acyclic digraph has a plane upward drawing and, if so, to find a representation of one such drawing. The algorithm decomposes the graph into biconnected and triconnected components, and defines conditions for merging the components into an upward drawing of the original graph. For the triconnected components we provide a linear algorithm to test whether a given plane representation admits an upward drawing with the same faces and outer face, which also gives a simpler (and algorithmic) proof of Thomassen's result. The entire testing algorithm (for general single source directed acyclic graphs) operates in O(n²) time and...
A parameterized algorithm for upward planarity testing
 In Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (Proc. ESA ’04
, 2004
"... author of this thesis. This is a true copy of the thesis, including any required final revisions, as accepted by my examiners. I understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public. ii We can visualize a graph by producing a geometric representation of the graph in which eac ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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author of this thesis. This is a true copy of the thesis, including any required final revisions, as accepted by my examiners. I understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public. ii We can visualize a graph by producing a geometric representation of the graph in which each node is represented by a single point on the plane, and each edge is represented by a curve that connects its two endpoints. Directed graphs are often used to model hierarchical structures; in order to visualize the hierarchy represented by such a graph, it is desirable that a drawing of the graph reflects this hierarchy. This can be achieved by drawing all the edges in the graph such that they all point in an upwards direction. A graph that has a drawing in which all edges point in an upwards direction and in which no edges cross is known as an upward planar graph. Unfortunately, testing if a graph is upward planar is NPcomplete. Parameterized complexity is a technique used to find efficient algorithms for hard
Planar Lattices are Lexicographically Shellable
, 1992
"... The special properties of planar posets have been studied, particularly in the 1970's by I. Rival and others. More recently, the connection between posets, their corresponding polynomial rings and corresponding simplicial complexes has been studied by R. Stanley and others. This paper, using wor ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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The special properties of planar posets have been studied, particularly in the 1970's by I. Rival and others. More recently, the connection between posets, their corresponding polynomial rings and corresponding simplicial complexes has been studied by R. Stanley and others. This paper, using work of A. Bjorner, provides a connection between the two bodies of work, by characterizing when planar posets are CohenMacaulay. Planar posets are lattices when they contain a greatest and a least element. We show that a nite planar lattice is lexicographically shellable and therefore CohenMacaulay i it is rankconnected.
Where to Draw the Line
, 1996
"... Graph Drawing (also known as Graph Visualization) tackles the problem of representing graphs on a visual medium such as computer screen, printer etc. Many applications such as software engineering, data base design, project planning, VLSI design, multimedia etc., have data structures that can be rep ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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Graph Drawing (also known as Graph Visualization) tackles the problem of representing graphs on a visual medium such as computer screen, printer etc. Many applications such as software engineering, data base design, project planning, VLSI design, multimedia etc., have data structures that can be represented as graphs. With the ever increasing complexity of these and new applications, and availability of hardware supporting visualization, the area of graph drawing is increasingly getting more attention from both practitioners and researchers. In a typical drawing of a graph, the vertices are represented as symbols such as circles, dots or boxes, etc., and the edges are drawn as continuous curves joining their end points. Often, the edges are simply drawn as (straight or poly) lines joining their end points (and hence the title of this thesis), followed by an optional transformation into smooth curves. The goal of research in graph drawing is to develop techniques for constructing good...
Upward Planar Drawings . . .
, 2006
"... In this paper we present a new characterization of switchregular upward embeddings, a concept introduced by Di Battista and Liotta in 1998. This characterization allows us to define a new efficient algorithm for computing upward planar drawings of embedded planar digraphs. If compared with a popula ..."
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In this paper we present a new characterization of switchregular upward embeddings, a concept introduced by Di Battista and Liotta in 1998. This characterization allows us to define a new efficient algorithm for computing upward planar drawings of embedded planar digraphs. If compared with a popular approach described by Bertolazzi, Di Battista, Liotta, and Mannino, our algorithm computes drawings that are significantly better in terms of total edge length and aspect ratio, especially for lowdensity digraphs. Also, we experimentally prove that the running time of the drawing process is reduced in most cases.
On the generalizability of Panini’s pratyaharatechnique to other languages
"... Abstract. Pān.ini defines the sound classes involved in grammatical rules by pratyāhāras, i.e., a twoletter code based on the order of the sounds in the ´ Sivasūtras. In the present paper we demonstrate that Pān.ini’s pratyāhāra method is generalizable to the description of the phonological systems ..."
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Abstract. Pān.ini defines the sound classes involved in grammatical rules by pratyāhāras, i.e., a twoletter code based on the order of the sounds in the ´ Sivasūtras. In the present paper we demonstrate that Pān.ini’s pratyāhāra method is generalizable to the description of the phonological systems of other languages by applying it to the sound classes and phonological alternations of German. Furthermore, we compare Pān.ini’s pratyāhāra technique with the technique of describing phonological classes by phonological features, which is more common in Western phonology. It turns out that pratyāhāras perform better than features for the description of our sample of German phonological processes if one considers the quality criterion for classdescription devices proposed by Kornai (1993) which is based on the ratio of describable to actual classes. Keywords: Panini,Sivasutras,phonologicalfeatures,soundclasses,formal concept analysis