Results 11  20
of
30
A parameterized algorithm for upward planarity testing
 In Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (Proc. ESA ’04
, 2004
"... author of this thesis. This is a true copy of the thesis, including any required final revisions, as accepted by my examiners. I understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public. ii We can visualize a graph by producing a geometric representation of the graph in which eac ..."
Abstract

Cited by 6 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
author of this thesis. This is a true copy of the thesis, including any required final revisions, as accepted by my examiners. I understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public. ii We can visualize a graph by producing a geometric representation of the graph in which each node is represented by a single point on the plane, and each edge is represented by a curve that connects its two endpoints. Directed graphs are often used to model hierarchical structures; in order to visualize the hierarchy represented by such a graph, it is desirable that a drawing of the graph reflects this hierarchy. This can be achieved by drawing all the edges in the graph such that they all point in an upwards direction. A graph that has a drawing in which all edges point in an upwards direction and in which no edges cross is known as an upward planar graph. Unfortunately, testing if a graph is upward planar is NPcomplete. Parameterized complexity is a technique used to find efficient algorithms for hard
A.: Drawing (complete) binary tanglegrams: Hardness, approximation, fixedparameter tractability. Arxiv report
, 2008
"... Abstract. A binary tanglegram is a pair 〈S, T 〉 of binary trees whose leaf sets are in onetoone correspondence; matching leaves are connected by intertree edges. For applications, for example in phylogenetics, it is essential that both trees are drawn without edge crossings and that the intertre ..."
Abstract

Cited by 5 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract. A binary tanglegram is a pair 〈S, T 〉 of binary trees whose leaf sets are in onetoone correspondence; matching leaves are connected by intertree edges. For applications, for example in phylogenetics, it is essential that both trees are drawn without edge crossings and that the intertree edges have as few crossings as possible. It is known that finding a drawing with the minimum number of crossings is NPhard and that the problem is fixedparameter tractable with respect to that number. We prove that under the Unique Games Conjecture there is no constantfactor approximation for general binary trees. We show that the problem is hard even if both trees are complete binary trees. For this case we give an O(n 3)time 2approximation and a new and simple fixedparameter algorithm. We show that the maximization version of the dual problem for general binary trees can be reduced to a version of MaxCut for which the algorithm of Goemans and Williamson yields a 0.878approximation. 1
Upward Embeddings and Orientations of Undirected Planar Graphs
 Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications
, 2001
"... An upward embedding of an embedded planar graph states, for each vertex v, which edges are incident to v \above" or \below" and, in turn, induces an upward orientation of the edges. In this paper we characterize the set of all upward embeddings and orientations of a plane graph by using a simple ow ..."
Abstract

Cited by 3 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
An upward embedding of an embedded planar graph states, for each vertex v, which edges are incident to v \above" or \below" and, in turn, induces an upward orientation of the edges. In this paper we characterize the set of all upward embeddings and orientations of a plane graph by using a simple ow model. We take advantage of such a ow model to compute upward orientations with the minimum number of sources and sinks of 1connected graphs. Our theoretical results allow us to easily compute visibility representations of 1connected graphs while having a certain control over the width and the height of the computed drawings, and to deal with partial assignments of the upward embeddings \underlying" the visibility representations. 2 1
Where to Draw the Line
, 1996
"... Graph Drawing (also known as Graph Visualization) tackles the problem of representing graphs on a visual medium such as computer screen, printer etc. Many applications such as software engineering, data base design, project planning, VLSI design, multimedia etc., have data structures that can be rep ..."
Abstract

Cited by 2 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Graph Drawing (also known as Graph Visualization) tackles the problem of representing graphs on a visual medium such as computer screen, printer etc. Many applications such as software engineering, data base design, project planning, VLSI design, multimedia etc., have data structures that can be represented as graphs. With the ever increasing complexity of these and new applications, and availability of hardware supporting visualization, the area of graph drawing is increasingly getting more attention from both practitioners and researchers. In a typical drawing of a graph, the vertices are represented as symbols such as circles, dots or boxes, etc., and the edges are drawn as continuous curves joining their end points. Often, the edges are simply drawn as (straight or poly) lines joining their end points (and hence the title of this thesis), followed by an optional transformation into smooth curves. The goal of research in graph drawing is to develop techniques for constructing good...
Building blocks of upward planar digraphs
 Proc. GD’04, volume 3383 of LNCS
, 2005
"... The upward planarity testing problem consists of testing if a digraph admits a drawing Γ such that all edges in Γ are monotonically increasing in the vertical direction and no edges in Γ cross. In this paper we reduce the problem of testing a digraph for upward planarity to the problem of testing if ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The upward planarity testing problem consists of testing if a digraph admits a drawing Γ such that all edges in Γ are monotonically increasing in the vertical direction and no edges in Γ cross. In this paper we reduce the problem of testing a digraph for upward planarity to the problem of testing if its blocks admit upward planar drawings with certain properties. We also show how to test if a block of a digraph admits an upward planar drawing with the aforementioned properties.
Upward threedimensional grid drawings of graphs. arXiv.org math.CO/0510051
, 2005
"... Abstract. A threedimensional grid drawing of a graph is a placement of the vertices at distinct points with integer coordinates, such that the straight line segments representing the edges do not cross. Our aim is to produce threedimensional grid drawings with small bounding box volume. Our first ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract. A threedimensional grid drawing of a graph is a placement of the vertices at distinct points with integer coordinates, such that the straight line segments representing the edges do not cross. Our aim is to produce threedimensional grid drawings with small bounding box volume. Our first main result is that every nvertex graph with bounded degeneracy has a threedimensional grid drawing with O(n 3/2) volume. This is the largest known class of graphs that have such drawings. A threedimensional grid drawing of a directed acyclic graph (dag) is upward if every arc points up in the zdirection. We prove that every dag has an upward threedimensional grid drawing with O(n 3) volume, which is tight for the complete dag. The previous best upper bound was O(n 4). Our main result concerning upward drawings is that every ccolourable dag (c constant) has an upward threedimensional grid drawing with O(n 2) volume. This result matches the bound in the undirected case, and improves the best known bound from O(n 3) for many classes of dags, including planar, series parallel, and outerplanar. Improved bounds are also obtained for tree dags. We prove a strong relationship between upward threedimensional grid drawings, upward track layouts, and upward queue layouts. Finally, we study upward threedimensional grid drawings with bends in the edges. 1.
Contractions, Removals and How to Certify 3Connectivity in Linear Time
"... One of the most noted construction methods of 3vertexconnected graphs is due to Tutte and based on the following fact: Any 3vertexconnected graph G = (V, E) on more than 4 vertices contains a contractible edge, i. e., an edge whose contraction generates a 3connected graph. This implies the exis ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
One of the most noted construction methods of 3vertexconnected graphs is due to Tutte and based on the following fact: Any 3vertexconnected graph G = (V, E) on more than 4 vertices contains a contractible edge, i. e., an edge whose contraction generates a 3connected graph. This implies the existence of a sequence of edge contractions from G to the complete graph K4, such that every intermediate graph is 3vertexconnected. A theorem of Barnette and Grünbaum gives a similar sequence using removals on edges instead of contractions. We show how to compute both sequences in optimal time, improving the previously best known running times of O(V  2) to O(E). This result has a number of consequences; an important one is a new lineartime test of 3connectivity that is certifying; finding such an algorithm has been a major open problem in the design of certifying algorithms in the last years. The test is conceptually different from wellknown lineartime 3connectivity tests and uses a certificate that is easy to verify in time O(E). We show how to extend the results to an optimal certifying test of 3edgeconnectivity. 1
IMPROVED UPPER BOUNDS IN NC FOR MONOTONE PLANAR CIRCUIT VALUE AND SOME RESTRICTIONS AND GENERALIZATIONS
"... and for the special case of upward stratified circuits, it is known to be in LogDCFL. In this paper we reexamine the complexity of MPCVP, with special attention to circuits with cylindrical embeddings. We characterize cylindricality, which is stronger than planarity but strictly generalizes upward ..."
Abstract
 Add to MetaCart
and for the special case of upward stratified circuits, it is known to be in LogDCFL. In this paper we reexamine the complexity of MPCVP, with special attention to circuits with cylindrical embeddings. We characterize cylindricality, which is stronger than planarity but strictly generalizes upward planarity, and make the characterization partially constructive. We use this construction, and four key reduction lemmas, to obtain several improvements. We show that stratified cylindrical monotone circuits can be evaluated in LogDCFL, and arbitrary cylindrical monotone circuits can be evaluated in AC 1 (LogDCFL), while monotone circuits with oneinputface planar embeddings can be evaluated in LogCFL. For monotone circuits with focused embeddings, we show an upper bound of AC 1 (LogDCFL). We reexamine the NC 3 algorithm for general MPCVP, and note that it is in AC 1 (LogCFL) = SAC 2. Finally, we consider extensions beyond MPCVP. We show that monotone circuits with toroidal embeddings can, given such an embedding, be evaluated in NC. Also, special kinds of arbitrary genus circuits can also be evaluated in NC. We also show that planar nonmonotone circuits with polylogarithmic negationheight can be evaluated in NC.
QuasiUpward Planarity (Extended Abstract)
"... In this paper we introduce the quasiupward planar drawing convention and give a polynomial time algorithm for computing a quasiupward planar drawing with the minimum number of bends within a given planar embedding. Further, we study the problem of computing quasiupward planar drawings with the mi ..."
Abstract
 Add to MetaCart
In this paper we introduce the quasiupward planar drawing convention and give a polynomial time algorithm for computing a quasiupward planar drawing with the minimum number of bends within a given planar embedding. Further, we study the problem of computing quasiupward planar drawings with the minimum number of bends of digraphs considering all the possible planar embeddings. The paper contains also experimental results about the proposed techniques.
On the Complexity of Finding . . .
, 2007
"... Upward planarity is a widely investigated topic in graph theory and graph drawing. A planar digraph is said to be upward planar if it admits a planar drawing where all edges are drawn as curves monotonically increasing in the upward direction. It is known that testing whether a planar digraph is upw ..."
Abstract
 Add to MetaCart
Upward planarity is a widely investigated topic in graph theory and graph drawing. A planar digraph is said to be upward planar if it admits a planar drawing where all edges are drawn as curves monotonically increasing in the upward direction. It is known that testing whether a planar digraph is upward planar is NPComplete in general. However, the upward planarity testing problem can be solved in polynomial time if the planar embedding of the digraph is fixed. This motivates the following question: Given an embedded planar digraph G, how is difficult to find an embedding preserving subgraph of G that is upward planar and whose number of edges is maximum? We prove that this problem is NPHard. This negative result motivates the study of polynomialtime algorithms for the computation of maximal (not necessarily maximum) upward planar subgraphs as well as the design of exact algorithms that perform well in practice. As a consequence of our proof technique, we also show that the problem of extracting a maximum bimodal subgraph from an embedded planar digraph is NPHard.