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215
A Dynamic Disk SpinDown Technique for Mobile Computing
, 1996
"... We address the problem of deciding when to spin down the disk of a mobile computer in order to extend battery life. Since one of the most critical resources in mobile computing environments is battery life, good energy conservation methods can dramatically increase the utility of mobile systems. We ..."
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Cited by 161 (7 self)
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We address the problem of deciding when to spin down the disk of a mobile computer in order to extend battery life. Since one of the most critical resources in mobile computing environments is battery life, good energy conservation methods can dramatically increase the utility of mobile systems. We use a simple and efficient algorithm based on machine learning techniques that has excellent performance in practice. Our experimental results are based on traces collected from HP C2474s disks. Using this data, the algorithm outperforms several algorithms that are theoretically optimal in under various worstcase assumptions, as well as the best fixed timeout strategy. In particular, the algorithm reduces the power consumption of the disk to about half (depending on the disk's properties) of the energy consumed by a one minute fixed timeout. Since the algorithm adapts to usage patterns, it uses as little as 88% of the energy consumed by the best fixed timeout computed in retrospect. 1 In...
Using Confidence Bounds for ExploitationExploration Tradeoffs
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2002
"... We show how a standard tool from statistics  namely confidence bounds  can be used to elegantly deal with situations which exhibit an exploitationexploration tradeo#. Our technique for designing and analyzing algorithms for such situations is general and can be applied when an algorithm h ..."
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Cited by 113 (4 self)
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We show how a standard tool from statistics  namely confidence bounds  can be used to elegantly deal with situations which exhibit an exploitationexploration tradeo#. Our technique for designing and analyzing algorithms for such situations is general and can be applied when an algorithm has to make exploitationversusexploration decisions based on uncertain information provided by a random process.
A Game of Prediction with Expert Advice
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1997
"... We consider the following problem. At each point of discrete time the learner must make a prediction; he is given the predictions made by a pool of experts. Each prediction and the outcome, which is disclosed after the learner has made his prediction, determine the incurred loss. It is known that, u ..."
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Cited by 109 (8 self)
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We consider the following problem. At each point of discrete time the learner must make a prediction; he is given the predictions made by a pool of experts. Each prediction and the outcome, which is disclosed after the learner has made his prediction, determine the incurred loss. It is known that, under weak regularity, the learner can ensure that his cumulative loss never exceeds cL+ a ln n, where c and a are some constants, n is the size of the pool, and L is the cumulative loss incurred by the best expert in the pool. We find the set of those pairs (c; a) for which this is true.
MistakeDriven Learning in Text Categorization
 IN EMNLP97, THE SECOND CONFERENCE ON EMPIRICAL METHODS IN NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING
, 1997
"... Learning problems in the text processing domain often map the text to a space whose dimensions are the measured fea tures of the text, e.g., its words. Three characteristic properties of this domain are (a) very high dimensionality, (b) both the learned concepts and the instances reside very ..."
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Cited by 102 (9 self)
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Learning problems in the text processing domain often map the text to a space whose dimensions are the measured fea tures of the text, e.g., its words. Three characteristic properties of this domain are (a) very high dimensionality, (b) both the learned concepts and the instances reside very sparsely in the feature space, and (c) a high variation in the number of active features in an instance. In this work we study three mistakedriven learning algo rithms for a typical task of this nature  text categorization. We argue
Using and combining predictors that specialize
 In 29th STOC
, 1997
"... Abstract. We study online learning algorithms that predict by combining the predictions of several subordinate prediction algorithms, sometimes called “experts. ” These simple algorithms belong to the multiplicative weights family of algorithms. The performance of these algorithms degrades only loga ..."
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Cited by 96 (13 self)
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Abstract. We study online learning algorithms that predict by combining the predictions of several subordinate prediction algorithms, sometimes called “experts. ” These simple algorithms belong to the multiplicative weights family of algorithms. The performance of these algorithms degrades only logarithmically with the number of experts, making them particularly useful in applications where the number of experts is very large. However, in applications such as text categorization, it is often natural for some of the experts to abstain from making predictions on some of the instances. We show how to transform algorithms that assume that all experts are always awake to algorithms that do not require this assumption. We also show how to derive corresponding loss bounds. Our method is very general, and can be applied to a large family of online learning algorithms. We also give applications to various prediction models including decision graphs and “switching ” experts. 1
A WinnowBased Approach to ContextSensitive Spelling Correction
 Machine Learning
, 1999
"... A large class of machinelearning problems in natural language require the characterization of linguistic context. Two characteristic properties of such problems are that their feature space is of very high dimensionality, and their target concepts depend on only a small subset of the features in th ..."
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Cited by 92 (1 self)
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A large class of machinelearning problems in natural language require the characterization of linguistic context. Two characteristic properties of such problems are that their feature space is of very high dimensionality, and their target concepts depend on only a small subset of the features in the space. Under such conditions, multiplicative weightupdate algorithms such as Winnow have been shown to have exceptionally good theoretical properties. In the work reported here, we present an algorithm combining variants of Winnow and weightedmajority voting, and apply it to a problem in the aforementioned class: contextsensitive spelling correction. This is the task of fixing spelling errors that happen to result in valid words, such as substituting to for too, casual for causal, and so on. We evaluate our algorithm, WinSpell, by comparing it against BaySpell, a statisticsbased method representing the state of the art for this task. We find: (1) When run with a full (unpruned) set ...
Online portfolio selection using multiplicative updates
 Mathematical Finance
, 1998
"... We present an online investment algorithm which achieves almost the same wealth as the best constantrebalanced portfolio determined in hindsight from the actual market outcomes. The algorithm employs a multiplicative update rule derived using a framework introduced by Kivinen and Warmuth. Our algo ..."
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Cited by 81 (10 self)
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We present an online investment algorithm which achieves almost the same wealth as the best constantrebalanced portfolio determined in hindsight from the actual market outcomes. The algorithm employs a multiplicative update rule derived using a framework introduced by Kivinen and Warmuth. Our algorithm is very simple to implement and requires only constant storage and computing time per stock ineach trading period. We tested the performance of our algorithm on real stock data from the New York Stock Exchange accumulated during a 22year period. On this data, our algorithm clearly outperforms the best single stock aswell as Cover's universal portfolio selection algorithm. We also present results for the situation in which the We present an online investment algorithm which achieves almost the same wealth as the best constantrebalanced portfolio investment strategy. The algorithm employsamultiplicative update rule derived using a framework introduced by Kivinen and Warmuth [20]. Our algorithm is very simple to implement and its time and storage requirements grow linearly in the number of stocks.
Tracking the Best Disjunction
 Machine Learning
, 1995
"... . Littlestone developed a simple deterministic online learning algorithm for learning kliteral disjunctions. This algorithm (called Winnow) keeps one weight for each of the n variables and does multiplicative updates to its weights. We develop a randomized version of Winnow and prove bounds for a ..."
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Cited by 75 (11 self)
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. Littlestone developed a simple deterministic online learning algorithm for learning kliteral disjunctions. This algorithm (called Winnow) keeps one weight for each of the n variables and does multiplicative updates to its weights. We develop a randomized version of Winnow and prove bounds for an adaptation of the algorithm for the case when the disjunction may change over time. In this case a possible target disjunction schedule T is a sequence of disjunctions (one per trial) and the shift size is the total number of literals that are added/removed from the disjunctions as one progresses through the sequence. We develop an algorithm that predicts nearly as well as the best disjunction schedule for an arbitrary sequence of examples. This algorithm that allows us to track the predictions of the best disjunction is hardly more complex than the original version. However the amortized analysis needed for obtaining worstcase mistake bounds requires new techniques. In some cases our low...
Adaptive and SelfConfident OnLine Learning Algorithms
, 2000
"... We study online learning in the linear regression framework. Most of the performance bounds for online algorithms in this framework assume a constant learning rate. To achieve these bounds the learning rate must be optimized based on a posteriori information. This information depends on the wh ..."
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Cited by 70 (8 self)
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We study online learning in the linear regression framework. Most of the performance bounds for online algorithms in this framework assume a constant learning rate. To achieve these bounds the learning rate must be optimized based on a posteriori information. This information depends on the whole sequence of examples and thus it is not available to any strictly online algorithm. We introduce new techniques for adaptively tuning the learning rate as the data sequence is progressively revealed. Our techniques allow us to prove essentially the same bounds as if we knew the optimal learning rate in advance. Moreover, such techniques apply to a wide class of online algorithms, including pnorm algorithms for generalized linear regression and Weighted Majority for linear regression with absolute loss. Our adaptive tunings are radically dierent from previous techniques, such as the socalled doubling trick. Whereas the doubling trick restarts the online algorithm several ti...
Competitive online statistics
 International Statistical Review
, 1999
"... A radically new approach to statistical modelling, which combines mathematical techniques of Bayesian statistics with the philosophy of the theory of competitive online algorithms, has arisen over the last decade in computer science (to a large degree, under the influence of Dawid’s prequential sta ..."
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Cited by 70 (12 self)
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A radically new approach to statistical modelling, which combines mathematical techniques of Bayesian statistics with the philosophy of the theory of competitive online algorithms, has arisen over the last decade in computer science (to a large degree, under the influence of Dawid’s prequential statistics). In this approach, which we call “competitive online statistics”, it is not assumed that data are generated by some stochastic mechanism; the bounds derived for the performance of competitive online statistical procedures are guaranteed to hold (and not just hold with high probability or on the average). This paper reviews some results in this area; the new material in it includes the proofs for the performance of the Aggregating Algorithm in the problem of linear regression with square loss. Keywords: Bayes’s rule, competitive online algorithms, linear regression, prequential statistics, worstcase analysis.