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Rewriting Logic Semantics: From Language Specifications to Formal Analysis Tools
 In Proceedings of the IJCAR 2004. LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract. Formal semantic definitions of concurrent languages, when specified in a wellsuited semantic framework and supported by generic and efficient formal tools, can be the basis of powerful software analysis tools. Such tools can be obtained for free from the semantic definitions; in our exper ..."
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Cited by 52 (14 self)
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Abstract. Formal semantic definitions of concurrent languages, when specified in a wellsuited semantic framework and supported by generic and efficient formal tools, can be the basis of powerful software analysis tools. Such tools can be obtained for free from the semantic definitions; in our experience in just the few weeks required to define a language’s semantics even for large languages like Java. By combining, yet distinguishing, both equations and rules, rewriting logic semantic definitions unify both the semantic equations of equational semantics (in their higherorder denotational version or their firstorder algebraic counterpart) and the semantic rules of SOS. Several limitations of both SOS and equational semantics are thus overcome within this unified framework. By using a highperformance implementation of rewriting logic such as Maude, a language’s formal specification can be automatically transformed into an efficient interpreter. Furthermore, by using Maude’s breadth first search command, we also obtain for free a semidecision procedure for finding failures of safety properties; and by using Maude’s LTL model checker, we obtain, also for free, a decision procedure for LTL properties of finitestate programs. These possibilities, and the competitive performance of the analysis tools thus obtained, are illustrated by means of a concurrent Camllike language; similar experience with Java (source and JVM) programs is also summarized. 1
Partial Functions in ACL2
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
"... We describe a macro for introducing \partial functions" into ACL2, i.e., functions not dened everywhere. The function \denitions" are actually admitted via the encapsulation principle. We discuss the basic issues surrounding partial functions in ACL2 and illustrate theorems that can be ..."
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Cited by 35 (7 self)
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We describe a macro for introducing \partial functions" into ACL2, i.e., functions not dened everywhere. The function \denitions" are actually admitted via the encapsulation principle. We discuss the basic issues surrounding partial functions in ACL2 and illustrate theorems that can be proved about such functions.
Java Program Verification via a JVM Deep Embedding in ACL2
 Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics (TPHOLS ’04
, 2004
"... In this paper, we show that one can "deepembed" the Java bytecode language, a fairly complicated language with a rich semantics, into the first order logic of ACL2 by modeling a realistic JVM. We show that with proper support from a semiautomatic theorem prover in that logic, one can rea ..."
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Cited by 18 (5 self)
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In this paper, we show that one can "deepembed" the Java bytecode language, a fairly complicated language with a rich semantics, into the first order logic of ACL2 by modeling a realistic JVM. We show that with proper support from a semiautomatic theorem prover in that logic, one can reason about the correctness of Java programs. This reasoning can be done in a direct and intuitive way without incurring the extra burden that has often been associated with hand proofs, or proofs that make use of less automated proof assistance. We present proofs for two simple Java programs as a showcase.
Verification Condition Generation via Theorem Proving
 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning (LPAR 2006), Vol. 4246 of LNCS
, 2006
"... Abstract. We present a method to convert (i) an operational semantics for a given machine language, and (ii) an offtheshelf theorem prover, into a high assurance verification condition generator (VCG). Given a program annotated with assertions at cutpoints, we show how to use the theorem prover di ..."
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Cited by 15 (4 self)
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Abstract. We present a method to convert (i) an operational semantics for a given machine language, and (ii) an offtheshelf theorem prover, into a high assurance verification condition generator (VCG). Given a program annotated with assertions at cutpoints, we show how to use the theorem prover directly on the operational semantics to generate verification conditions analogous to those produced by a custombuilt VCG. Thus no separate VCG is necessary, and the theorem prover can be employed both to generate and to discharge the verification conditions. The method handles both partial and total correctness. It is also compositional in that the correctness of a subroutine needs to be proved once, rather than at each call site. The method has been used to verify several machinelevel programs using the ACL2 theorem prover. 1
2006): A Robust Machine Code Proof Framework for Highly Secure Applications
 In: Proceeding of the 2006 International Workshop on ACL2, ACM
"... A robust machine code proof framework for highly secure applications ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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A robust machine code proof framework for highly secure applications
Proof styles in operational semantics
 Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Formal Methods in ComputerAided Design (FMCAD 2004), volume 3312 of LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract. We relate two wellstudied methodologies in deductive verification of operationally modeled sequential programs, namely the use of inductive invariants and clock functions. We show that the two methodologies are equivalent and one can mechanically transform a proof of a program in one meth ..."
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Cited by 11 (6 self)
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Abstract. We relate two wellstudied methodologies in deductive verification of operationally modeled sequential programs, namely the use of inductive invariants and clock functions. We show that the two methodologies are equivalent and one can mechanically transform a proof of a program in one methodology to a proof in the other. Both partial and total correctness are considered. This mechanical transformation is compositional; different parts of a program can be verified using different methodologies to achieve a complete proof of the entire program. The equivalence theorems have been mechanically checked by the ACL2 theorem prover and we implement automatic tools to carry out the transformation between the two methodologies in ACL2.
Efficient execution in an automated reasoning environment
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 2006
"... Abstract We describe a method to permit the user of a mathematical logic to write elegant logical definitions while allowing sound and efficient execution. We focus on the ACL2 logic and automated reasoning environment. ACL2 is used by industrial researchers to describe microprocessor designs and ot ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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Abstract We describe a method to permit the user of a mathematical logic to write elegant logical definitions while allowing sound and efficient execution. We focus on the ACL2 logic and automated reasoning environment. ACL2 is used by industrial researchers to describe microprocessor designs and other complicated digital systems. Properties of the designs can be formally established with the theorem prover. But because ACL2 is also a functional programming language, the formal models can be executed as simulation engines. We implement features that afford these dual applications, namely formal proof and execution on industrial test suites. In particular, the features allow the user to install, in a logically sound way, alternative executable counterparts for logicallydefined functions. These alternatives are often much more efficient than the logically equivalent terms they replace. We discuss several applications of these features. 1 Introduction This paper is about a way to permit the functional programmer to prove efficientprograms correct. The idea is to allow the provision of two definitions of the program: an elegant definition that supports effective reasoning by a mechanizedtheorem prover, and an efficient definition for evaluation. A bridge of this sort,
A Framework for Verifying BitLevel Pipelined Machines Based on Automated Deduction and Decision Procedures
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 2006
"... Abstract. We describe an approach to verifying bitlevel pipelined machine models using a combination of deductive reasoning and decision procedures. While theorem proving systems such as ACL2 have been used to verify bitlevel designs, they typically require extensive expert user support. Decision ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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Abstract. We describe an approach to verifying bitlevel pipelined machine models using a combination of deductive reasoning and decision procedures. While theorem proving systems such as ACL2 have been used to verify bitlevel designs, they typically require extensive expert user support. Decision procedures such as those implemented in UCLID can be used to automatically and efficiently verify termlevel pipelined machine models, but these models use numerous abstractions, implement a subset of the instruction set, and are far from executable. We show that by integrating UCLID with the ACL2 theorem proving system, we can use ACL2 to reduce the proof that an executable, bitlevel machine refines its instruction set architecture to a proof that a termlevel abstraction of the bitlevel machine refines the instruction set architecture, which is then handled automatically by UCLID. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach by applying it to verify a complex seven stage bitlevel interface pipelined machine model that implements 593 instructions and has features such as branch prediction, exceptions, and predicated instruction execution. Such a proof is not possible using UCLID and would require prohibitively more effort using just ACL2.
A Symbolic Simulation Approach to Assertional Program Verification
, 2005
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D.: Partial Clock Functions in ACL2
 5th ACL2 Workshop. (2004
, 2004
"... Abstract J Moore has discovered an elegant approach for verifying state invariants of imperative programs without having to write a verification condition generator (VCG) or clock function. Users need only make assertions about selected cutpoint instructions of a program, such as loop tests and subr ..."
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Abstract J Moore has discovered an elegant approach for verifying state invariants of imperative programs without having to write a verification condition generator (VCG) or clock function. Users need only make assertions about selected cutpoint instructions of a program, such as loop tests and subroutine entry and exit points. ACL2's rewriter is then used to automatically propagate these assertions through the intervening instructions.