Results 1  10
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18
Efficient analyses for realistic offline partial evaluation
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 1993
"... Based on Henglein’s efficient bindingtime analysis for the lambda calculus (with constants and “fix”) [Hen91], we develop four efficient analyses for use in the preprocessing phase of Similix, a selfapplicable partial evaluator for a higherorder subset of Scheme. The analyses developed in this pa ..."
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Cited by 49 (1 self)
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Based on Henglein’s efficient bindingtime analysis for the lambda calculus (with constants and “fix”) [Hen91], we develop four efficient analyses for use in the preprocessing phase of Similix, a selfapplicable partial evaluator for a higherorder subset of Scheme. The analyses developed in this paper are almostlinear in the size of the analysed program. (1) A flow analysis determines possible value flow between lambdaabstractions and function applications and between constructor applications and selector/predicate applications. The flow analysis is not particularly biased towards partial evaluation; the analysis corresponds to the closure analysis of [Bon91b]. (2) A (monovariant) bindingtime analysis distinguishes static from dynamic values; the analysis treats both higherorder functions and partially static data structures. (3) A new isused analysis, not present in [Bon91b], finds a nonminimal bindingtime annotation which is “safe ” in a certain way: a firstorder value may only become static if its result is “needed ” during specialization; this “poor man’s generalization ” [Hol88] increases termination of specialization. (4) Finally, an evaluationorder dependency analysis ensures that the order of sideeffects is preserved in the residual program. The four analyses are performed
FlowDirected Closure Conversion for Typed Languages
 In ESOP '00 [ESOP00
, 2000
"... This paper presents a new closure conversion algorithm for simplytyped languages. We have have implemented the algorithm as part of MLton, a wholeprogram compiler for Standard ML (SML). MLton first applies all functors and eliminates polymorphism by code duplication to produce a simplytyped progr ..."
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Cited by 32 (1 self)
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This paper presents a new closure conversion algorithm for simplytyped languages. We have have implemented the algorithm as part of MLton, a wholeprogram compiler for Standard ML (SML). MLton first applies all functors and eliminates polymorphism by code duplication to produce a simplytyped program. MLton then performs closure conversion to produce a firstorder, simplytyped program. In contrast to typical functional language implementations, MLton performs most optimizations on the firstorder language, after closure conversion. There are two notable contributions of our work: 1. The translation uses a general flowanalysis framework which includes OCFA. The types in the target language fully capture the results of the analysis. MLton uses the analysis to insert coercions to translate between different representations of a closure to preserve type correctness of the target language program. 2. The translation is practical. Experimental results over a range of benchmarks...
BindingTime Analysis for Mercury
 16th International Conference on Logic Programming, pages 500 { 514
, 1999
"... . In this paper, we describe a bindingtime analysis (BTA) for a statically typed and strongly moded pure logic programming language, in casu Mercury. Bindingtime analysis is the key concept in achieving oline program specialisation: the analysis starts from a description of the program's ..."
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Cited by 10 (5 self)
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. In this paper, we describe a bindingtime analysis (BTA) for a statically typed and strongly moded pure logic programming language, in casu Mercury. Bindingtime analysis is the key concept in achieving oline program specialisation: the analysis starts from a description of the program's input available for specialisation, and propagates this information throughout the program, deriving directives for when and how to perform specialisation. 1
Program Representation Size in an Intermediate Language with Intersection and Union Types
 In Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Types in Compilation (TIC 2000
, 2000
"... The CIL compiler for core Standard ML compiles whole programs using a novel typed intermediate language (TIL) with intersection and union types and ow labels on both terms and types. The CIL term representation duplicates portions of the program where intersection types are introduced and union ..."
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Cited by 9 (7 self)
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The CIL compiler for core Standard ML compiles whole programs using a novel typed intermediate language (TIL) with intersection and union types and ow labels on both terms and types. The CIL term representation duplicates portions of the program where intersection types are introduced and union types are eliminated. This duplication makes it easier to represent type information and to introduce customized data representations. However, duplication incurs compiletime space costs that are potentially much greater than are incurred in TILs employing typelevel abstraction or quanti cation. In this paper, we present empirical data on the compiletime space costs of using CIL as an intermediate language. The data shows that these costs can be made tractable by using suciently negrained ow analyses together with standard hashconsing techniques. The data also suggests that nonduplicating formulations of intersection (and union) types would not achieve signi cantly better space complexity.
Space Issues in Compiling with Intersection and Union Types
, 2000
"... The CIL compiler for core Standard ML compiles whole programs using the CIL typed intermediate language with ow labels and intersection and union types. Flow labels embed flow information in the types and intersection and union types support precise polyvariant type and flow information, without the ..."
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Cited by 6 (5 self)
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The CIL compiler for core Standard ML compiles whole programs using the CIL typed intermediate language with ow labels and intersection and union types. Flow labels embed flow information in the types and intersection and union types support precise polyvariant type and flow information, without the use of typelevel abstraction or quantification. Compiletime representations of CIL types and terms are potentially large compared to those for similar types and terms in systems based on quantified types. The listingbased nature of intersection and union types, together with flow label annotations on types, contribute to the size of CIL types. The CIL term representation duplicates portions of the program where intersection types are introduced and union types are eliminated. This duplication makes it easier to represent type information and to introduce multiple representation conventions, but incurs a compiletime space cost. This paper presents empirical data on the compiletime space cos...
Breaking through the n 3 barrier: Faster object type inference. Theory and Practice of Object Systems
 4th Int’l Workshop on Foundations of ObjectOriented Languages (FOOL
, 1999
"... Abadi and Cardelli [AC96] have presented and investigated object calculi that model most objectoriented features found in actual objectoriented programming languages. The calculi are innate object calculi in that they are not based on λcalculus. They present a series of type systems for their calc ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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Abadi and Cardelli [AC96] have presented and investigated object calculi that model most objectoriented features found in actual objectoriented programming languages. The calculi are innate object calculi in that they are not based on λcalculus. They present a series of type systems for their calculi, four of which are firstorder. Palsberg [Pal95] has shown how typability in each one of these systems can be decided in time O(n 3), where n is the size of an untyped object expression, using an algorithm based on dynamic transitive closure. He also shows that each of the type inference problems is hard for polynomial time under logspace reductions. In this paper we show how we can break through the (dynamic) transitive closure bottleneck and improve each one of the four type inference problems from O(n 3) to the following time complexities: no subtyping subtyping w/o rec. types O(n) O(n2) with rec. types O(n log 2 n) O(n2) The key ingredient that lets us “beat ” the worstcase time complexity induced by using general dynamic transitive closure or similar algorithmic methods is that object subtyping is invariant: an object type is a subtype of a “shorter ” type with a subset of the field names if and only if the common fields have equal types. 1
Partial Evaluation for Program Analysis
, 1998
"... syntax of labeled CPS terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Sets induced by the source program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Shivers's original 0CFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1 State passing 0CFA: ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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syntax of labeled CPS terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Sets induced by the source program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Shivers's original 0CFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1 State passing 0CFA: functionalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2 Statepassing 0CFA: the equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3 Introducing timestamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1 Types of IMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.2 Syntax of IMP programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.3 IMP predefined constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.4 Typing rules for IMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.5 Interpretation of types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.6 Semantics of IMP language constructs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.7 Interpretation of IMP constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.8 ICFA: program for computing the 0CFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.1 Typing rule and semantics for the caseX construct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.2 Call unfolding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.1 Example of residual function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.2 The ICFA # program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.3 ICFA ## program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
Partial evaluation for constraintbased program analyses
, 1999
"... We report on a case study in the application of partial evaluation, initiated by the desire to speed up a constraintbased algorithm for controlflow analysis. We designed and implemented a dedicated partial evaluator, able to specialize the analysis wrt. a given constraint graph and thus remove the ..."
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We report on a case study in the application of partial evaluation, initiated by the desire to speed up a constraintbased algorithm for controlflow analysis. We designed and implemented a dedicated partial evaluator, able to specialize the analysis wrt. a given constraint graph and thus remove the interpretive overhead, and measured it with Feeley’s Scheme benchmarks. Even though the gain turned out to be rather limited, our investigation yielded valuable feed back in that it provided a better understanding of the analysis, leading us to (re)invent an incremental version. We believe this phenomenon to be a quite frequent spinoff from using partial evaluation, since the removal of interpretive overhead makes the flow of control more explicit and hence pinpoints sources of inefficiency. Finally, we observed that partial evaluation in our case yields such regular, lowlevel specialized programs that it begs for runtime code generation. 1
Flow Analysis, Linearity, and PTIME
"... Abstract. Flow analysis is a ubiquitous and muchstudied component of compiler technology—and its variations abound. Amongst the most well known is Shivers ’ 0CFA; however, the best known algorithm for 0CFA requires time cubic in the size of the analyzed program and is unlikely to be improved. Conse ..."
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Abstract. Flow analysis is a ubiquitous and muchstudied component of compiler technology—and its variations abound. Amongst the most well known is Shivers ’ 0CFA; however, the best known algorithm for 0CFA requires time cubic in the size of the analyzed program and is unlikely to be improved. Consequently, several analyses have been designed to approximate 0CFA by trading precision for faster computation. Henglein’s simple closure analysis, for example, forfeits the notion of directionality in flows and enjoys an “almost linear ” time algorithm. But in making tradeoffs between precision and complexity, what has been given up and what has been gained? Where do these analyses differ and where do they coincide? We identify a core language—the linear λcalculus—where 0CFA, simple closure analysis, and many other known approximations or restrictions to 0CFA are rendered identical. Moreover, for this core language, analysis corresponds with (instrumented) evaluation. Because analysis faithfully captures evaluation, and because the linear λcalculusiscomplete for ptime, wederiveptimecompleteness results for all of these analyses. 1