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210
Logical foundations of objectoriented and framebased languages
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1995
"... We propose a novel formalism, called Frame Logic (abbr., Flogic), that accounts in a clean and declarative fashion for most of the structural aspects of objectoriented and framebased languages. These features include object identity, complex objects, inheritance, polymorphic types, query methods, ..."
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Cited by 763 (59 self)
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We propose a novel formalism, called Frame Logic (abbr., Flogic), that accounts in a clean and declarative fashion for most of the structural aspects of objectoriented and framebased languages. These features include object identity, complex objects, inheritance, polymorphic types, query methods, encapsulation, and others. In a sense, Flogic stands in the same relationship to the objectoriented paradigm as classical predicate calculus stands to relational programming. Flogic has a modeltheoretic semantics and a sound and complete resolutionbased proof theory. A small number of fundamental concepts that come from objectoriented programming have direct representation in Flogic; other, secondary aspects of this paradigm are easily modeled as well. The paper also discusses semantic issues pertaining to programming with a deductive objectoriented language based on a subset of Flogic.
An Efficient Unification Algorithm
 TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS (TOPLAS)
, 1982
"... The unification problem in firstorder predicate calculus is described in general terms as the solution of a system of equations, and a nondeterministic algorithm is given. A new unification algorithm, characterized by having the acyclicity test efficiently embedded into it, is derived from the nond ..."
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Cited by 332 (1 self)
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The unification problem in firstorder predicate calculus is described in general terms as the solution of a system of equations, and a nondeterministic algorithm is given. A new unification algorithm, characterized by having the acyclicity test efficiently embedded into it, is derived from the nondeterministic one, and a PASCAL implementation is given. A comparison with other wellknown unification algorithms shows that the algorithm described here performs well in all cases.
Stable models and an alternative logic programming paradigm
 In The Logic Programming Paradigm: a 25Year Perspective
, 1999
"... In this paper we reexamine the place and role of stable model semantics in logic programming and contrast it with a least Herbrand model approach to Horn programs. We demonstrate that inherent features of stable model semantics naturally lead to a logic programming system that offers an interesting ..."
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Cited by 247 (18 self)
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In this paper we reexamine the place and role of stable model semantics in logic programming and contrast it with a least Herbrand model approach to Horn programs. We demonstrate that inherent features of stable model semantics naturally lead to a logic programming system that offers an interesting alternative to more traditional logic programming styles of Horn logic programming, stratified logic programming and logic programming with wellfounded semantics. The proposed approach is based on the interpretation of program clauses as constraints. In this setting programs do not describe a single intended model, but a family of stable models. These stable models encode solutions to the constraint satisfaction problem described by the program. Our approach imposes restrictions on the syntax of logic programs. In particular, function symbols are eliminated from the language. We argue that the resulting logic programming system is wellattuned to problems in the class NP, has a welldefined domain of applications, and an emerging methodology of programming. We point out that what makes the whole approach viable is recent progress in implementations of algorithms to compute stable models of propositional logic programs. 1
FLogic: a higherorder language for reasoning about objects, inheritance, and scheme
, 1997
"... We propose a database logic which accounts in a clean declarative fashion for most of the “objectoriented” features such as object identity, complex objects, inheritance, methods, etc. Furthermore, database schema is part of the object language, which allows the user to browse schema and data using ..."
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Cited by 174 (9 self)
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We propose a database logic which accounts in a clean declarative fashion for most of the “objectoriented” features such as object identity, complex objects, inheritance, methods, etc. Furthermore, database schema is part of the object language, which allows the user to browse schema and data using the same declarative formalism. The proposed logic has a formal semantics and a sound and complete resolutionbased proof procedure, which makes it also computationally attractive.
Tableau Methods for Modal and Temporal Logics
, 1995
"... This document is a complete draft of a chapter by Rajeev Gor'e on "Tableau Methods for Modal and Temporal Logics" which is part of the "Handbook of Tableau Methods", edited by M. D'Agostino, D. Gabbay, R. Hahnle and J. Posegga, to be published in 1998 by Kluwer, Dordrecht. Any comments and correctio ..."
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Cited by 125 (20 self)
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This document is a complete draft of a chapter by Rajeev Gor'e on "Tableau Methods for Modal and Temporal Logics" which is part of the "Handbook of Tableau Methods", edited by M. D'Agostino, D. Gabbay, R. Hahnle and J. Posegga, to be published in 1998 by Kluwer, Dordrecht. Any comments and corrections are highly welcome. Please email me at rpg@arp.anu.edu.au The latest version of this document can be obtained via my WWW home page: http://arp.anu.edu.au/ Tableau Methods for Modal and Temporal Logics Rajeev Gor'e Contents 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Syntax and Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 Axiomatics of Modal Logics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3 Kripke Semantics For Modal Logics . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.4 Known Correspondence and Completeness Results . . . . 6 2.5 Logical Consequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2....
Automated Deduction by Theory Resolution
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1985
"... Theory resolution constitutes a set of complete procedures for incorporating theories into a resolution theoremproving program, thereby making it unnecessary to resolve directly upon axioms of the theory. This can greatly reduce the length of proofs and the size of the search space. Theory resoluti ..."
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Cited by 121 (1 self)
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Theory resolution constitutes a set of complete procedures for incorporating theories into a resolution theoremproving program, thereby making it unnecessary to resolve directly upon axioms of the theory. This can greatly reduce the length of proofs and the size of the search space. Theory resolution effects a beneficial division of labor, improving the performance of the theorem prover and increasing the applicability of the specialized reasoning procedures. Total theory resolution utilizes a decision procedure that is capable of determining unsatisfiability of any set of clauses using predicates in the theory. Partial theory resolution employs a weaker decision procedure that can determine potential unsatisfiability of sets of literals. Applications include the building in of both mathematical and special decision procedures, e.g., for the taxonomic information furnished by a knowledge representation system. Theory resolution is a generalization of numerous previously known resolution refinements. Its power is demonstrated by comparing solutions of "Schubert's Steamroller" challenge problem with and without building in axioms through theory resolution. 1 1
A Prolog Technology Theorem Prover: Implementation by an Extended Prolog Compiler
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1987
"... A Prolog technology theorem prover (PTTP) is an extension of Prolog that is complete for the full firstorder predicate calculus. It differs from Prolog in its use of unification with the occurs check for soundness, the modelelimination reduction rule that is added to Prolog inferences to make the ..."
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Cited by 100 (2 self)
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A Prolog technology theorem prover (PTTP) is an extension of Prolog that is complete for the full firstorder predicate calculus. It differs from Prolog in its use of unification with the occurs check for soundness, the modelelimination reduction rule that is added to Prolog inferences to make the inference system complete, and depthfirst iterativedeepening search instead of unbounded depthfirst search to make the search strategy complete. A Prolog technology theorem prover has been implemented by an extended PrologtoLISP compiler that supports these additional features. It is capable of proving theorems in the full firstorder predicate calculus at a rate of thousands of inferences per second. 1 This is a revised and expanded version of a paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Automated Deduction, Oxford, England, July 1986, and is to appear in Journal of Automated Reasoning. This research was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Co...
The TPTP Problem Library
, 1999
"... This report provides a detailed description of the TPTP Problem Library for automated theorem proving systems. The library is available via Internet, and forms a common basis for development of and experimentation with automated theorem provers. This report provides: ffl the motivations for buildin ..."
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Cited by 100 (6 self)
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This report provides a detailed description of the TPTP Problem Library for automated theorem proving systems. The library is available via Internet, and forms a common basis for development of and experimentation with automated theorem provers. This report provides: ffl the motivations for building the library; ffl a discussion of the inadequacies of previous problem collections, and how these have been resolved in the TPTP; ffl a description of the library structure, including overview information; ffl descriptions of supplementary utility programs; ffl guidelines for obtaining and using the library; Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Previous Problem Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 What is Required? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Inside the TPTP 6 2.1 The TPTP Domain Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
A Logic for Reasoning with Inconsistency
, 1992
"... Most known computational approaches to reasoning have problems when facing inconsistency, so they assume that a given logical system is consistent. Unfortunately, the latter is difficult to verify and very often is not true. It may happen that addition of data to a large system makes it inconsistent ..."
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Cited by 95 (8 self)
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Most known computational approaches to reasoning have problems when facing inconsistency, so they assume that a given logical system is consistent. Unfortunately, the latter is difficult to verify and very often is not true. It may happen that addition of data to a large system makes it inconsistent, and hence destroys the vast amount of meaningful information. We present a logic, called APC (annotated predicate calculus; cf. annotated logic programs of [3], that treats any set of clauses, either consistent or not, in a uniform way. In this logic, consequences of a contradiction are not nearly as damaging as in the standard predicate calculus, and meaningful information can still be extracted from an inconsistent set of formulae. APC has a resolutionbased sound and complete proof procedure. We also introduce a novel notion of "epistemic entailment" and show its importance for investigating inconsistency in predicate calculus as well as its application to nonmonotonic reasoning. Most importantly, our claim that a logical theory is an adequate model of human perception of inconsistency, is actually backed by rigorous arguments.