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96
On the Power of MultiProver Interactive Protocols
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1988
"... this paper we consider a further generalization of the proof system model, due to BenOr, Goldwasser, Kilian and Wigderson [6], where instead of a single prover there may be many. This apparently gives the model additional power. The intuition for this may be seen by considering the case of two crim ..."
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Cited by 131 (9 self)
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this paper we consider a further generalization of the proof system model, due to BenOr, Goldwasser, Kilian and Wigderson [6], where instead of a single prover there may be many. This apparently gives the model additional power. The intuition for this may be seen by considering the case of two criminal suspects who are under interrogation to see if they are guilty of together robbing a bank. Of course they (the provers) are trying to convince Scotland Yard (the verifier) of their innocence. Assuming that they are in fact innocent, it is clear that their ability to convince the police of this is enhanced if they are questioned in separate rooms and can corroborate each other's stories without communicating. We shall see later in this paper that this sort of corroboration is the key to the additional power of multiple provers. Interactive proof systems have seen a number of important applications to cryptography [23, 22], algebraic complexity [3], program testing [7, 8] and distributed computation [16, 23]. For example, a chain of results concerning interactive proof systems [22, 3, 24, 9] conclude that if the graph isomorphism problem is NPcomplete then the polynomial time hierarchy collapses. Multipleprover interactive proof systems have also seen several important applications including the analysis of program testing [7, 4] and the complexity of approximation algorithms [14, 2, 1]. Brief summary of results: First we give a simple characterization of the power of the multiprover model in terms of probabilistic oracle Turing machines. Then we show that every language accepted by multiple prover interactive proof systems can be computed in nondeterministic exponential time. Babai, Fortnow and Lund [4] have since shown this bound is tight. We then show results like th...
The unique games conjecture, integrality gap for cut problems and embeddability of negative type metrics into ℓ1
 In Proceedings of the 46th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2005
"... In this paper we disprove the following conjecture due to Goemans [16] and Linial [24] (also see [5, 26]): “Every negative type metric embeds into ℓ1 with constant distortion.” We show that for every δ>0, and for large enough n, there is an npoint negative type metric which requires distortion a ..."
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Cited by 128 (12 self)
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In this paper we disprove the following conjecture due to Goemans [16] and Linial [24] (also see [5, 26]): “Every negative type metric embeds into ℓ1 with constant distortion.” We show that for every δ>0, and for large enough n, there is an npoint negative type metric which requires distortion atleast (log log n) 1/6−δ to embed into ℓ1. Surprisingly, our construction is inspired by the Unique Games Conjecture (UGC) of Khot [19], establishing a previously unsuspected connection between PCPs and the theory of metric embeddings. We first prove that the UGC implies superconstant hardness results for (nonuniform) SPARSEST CUT and MINIMUM UNCUT problems. It is already known that the UGC also implies an optimal hardness result for MAXIMUM CUT [20]. Though these hardness results depend on the UGC, the integrality gap instances rely “only ” on the PCP reductions for the respective problems. Towards this, we first construct an integrality gap instance for a natural SDP relaxation of UNIQUE GAMES. Then, we “simulate ” the PCP reduction and “translate ” the integrality gap instance of UNIQUE GAMES to integrality gap instances for the respective cut problems! This enables us to prove a (log log n) 1/6−δ integrality gap for (nonuniform) SPARSEST CUT and MINIMUM UNCUT, and an optimal integrality gap for MAXIMUM CUT. All our SDP solutions satisfy the socalled “triangle inequality ” constraints. This also shows, for the first time, that the triangle inequality constraints do not add any power to the GoemansWilliamson’s SDP relaxation of MAXIMUM CUT. The integrality gap for SPARSEST CUT immediately implies a lower bound for embedding negative type metrics into ℓ1. It also disproves the nonuniform version of Arora, Rao and Vazirani’s Conjecture [5], asserting that the integrality gap of the SPARSEST CUT SDP, with the triangle inequality constraints, is bounded from above by a constant.
Hardness Of Approximations
, 1996
"... This chapter is a selfcontained survey of recent results about the hardness of approximating NPhard optimization problems. ..."
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Cited by 102 (4 self)
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This chapter is a selfcontained survey of recent results about the hardness of approximating NPhard optimization problems.
Consequences and Limits of Nonlocal Strategies
, 2010
"... Thispaperinvestigatesthepowersandlimitationsofquantum entanglementinthecontext of cooperative games of incomplete information. We give several examples of such nonlocal games where strategies that make use of entanglement outperform all possible classical strategies. One implication ofthese examples ..."
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Cited by 72 (17 self)
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Thispaperinvestigatesthepowersandlimitationsofquantum entanglementinthecontext of cooperative games of incomplete information. We give several examples of such nonlocal games where strategies that make use of entanglement outperform all possible classical strategies. One implication ofthese examplesis that entanglement canprofoundly affectthesoundness property of twoprover interactive proof systems. We then establish limits on the probability with which strategies making use of entanglement can win restricted types of nonlocal games. These upperbounds mayberegardedasgeneralizationsof Tsirelsontypeinequalities, which place bounds on the extent to which quantum information can allow for the violation of Bell inequalities. We also investigate the amount of entanglement required by optimal and nearly optimal quantum strategies forsome games.
Efficient Checking of Polynomials and Proofs and the Hardness of Approximation Problems
, 1992
"... The definition of the class NP [Coo71, Lev73] highlights the problem of verification of proofs as one of central interest to theoretical computer science. Recent efforts have shown that the efficiency of the verification can be greatly improved by allowing the verifier access to random bits and acce ..."
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Cited by 70 (9 self)
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The definition of the class NP [Coo71, Lev73] highlights the problem of verification of proofs as one of central interest to theoretical computer science. Recent efforts have shown that the efficiency of the verification can be greatly improved by allowing the verifier access to random bits and accepting probabilistic guarantees from the verifier [BFL91, BFLS91, FGL + 91, AS92]. We improve upon the efficiency of the proof systems developed above and obtain proofs which can be verified probabilistically by examining only a constant number of (randomly chosen) bits of the proof. The efficiently verifiable proofs constructed here rely on the structural properties of lowdegree polynomials. We explore the properties of these functions by examining some simple and basic questions about them. We consider questions of the form: • (testing) Given an oracle for a function f, is f close to a lowdegree polynomial? • (correcting) Let f be close to a lowdegree polynomial g, is it possible to efficiently reconstruct the value of g on any given input using an oracle for f? 2 The questions described above have been raised before in the context of coding theory as the problems of errordetecting and errorcorrecting of codes. More recently
Parallelization, Amplification, and Exponential Time Simulation of Quantum Interactive Proof Systems
 In Proceedings of the 32nd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2000
"... In this paper we consider quantum interactive proof systems, which are interactive proof systems in which the prover and verier may perform quantum computations and exchange quantum information. We prove that any polynomialround quantum interactive proof system with twosided bounded error can be p ..."
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Cited by 60 (17 self)
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In this paper we consider quantum interactive proof systems, which are interactive proof systems in which the prover and verier may perform quantum computations and exchange quantum information. We prove that any polynomialround quantum interactive proof system with twosided bounded error can be parallelized to a quantum interactive proof system with exponentially small onesided error in which the prover and verier exchange only 3 messages. This yields a simplied proof that PSPACE has 3message quantum interactive proof systems. We also prove that any language having a quantum interactive proof system can be decided in deterministic exponential time, implying that singleprover quantum interactive proof systems are strictly less powerful than multipleprover classical interactive proof systems unless EXP = NEXP. 1. INTRODUCTION Interactive proof systems were introduced by Babai [3] and Goldwasser, Micali, and Racko [17] in 1985. In the same year, Deutsch [10] gave the rst for...
Duality and polynomial testing of tree homomorphisms
 Trans. Amer. Math. Soc
, 1996
"... Abstract. Let H be a fixed digraph. We consider the Hcolouring problem, i.e., the problem of deciding which digraphs G admit a homomorphism to H. We are interested in a characterization in terms of the absence in G of certain treelike obstructions. Specifically, we say that H has tree duality if, ..."
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Cited by 54 (16 self)
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Abstract. Let H be a fixed digraph. We consider the Hcolouring problem, i.e., the problem of deciding which digraphs G admit a homomorphism to H. We are interested in a characterization in terms of the absence in G of certain treelike obstructions. Specifically, we say that H has tree duality if, for all digraphs G, G is not homomorphic to H if and only if there is an oriented tree which is homomorphic to G but not to H. Weprovethatif Hhas tree duality then the Hcolouring problem is polynomial. We also generalize tree duality to bounded treewidth duality and prove a similar result. We relate these duality concepts to the notion of the Xproperty studied by Gutjahr, Welzl, and Woeginger. We then focus on the case when H itself is an oriented tree. In fact, we are particularly interested in those trees that have exactly one vertex of degree three and all other vertices of degree one or two. Such trees are called triads. We have shown in a companion paper that there exist oriented triads H for which the Hcolouring problem is NPcomplete. We contrast these with several families of oriented triads H which have tree duality, or bounded treewidth duality, and hence polynomial Hcolouring problems. If P � = NP, then no oriented triad H with an NPcomplete Hcolouring problem can have bounded treewidth duality; however no proof of this is known, for any oriented triad H. We prove that none of the oriented triads H with NPcomplete Hcolouring problems given in the companion paper has tree duality. 1.
On the Hardness of Approximating Spanners
 Algorithmica
, 1999
"... A k\Gammaspanner of a connected graph G = (V; E) is a subgraph G 0 consisting of all the vertices of V and a subset of the edges, with the additional property that the distance between any two vertices in G 0 is larger than the distance in G by no more than a factor of k. This paper concerns ..."
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Cited by 51 (12 self)
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A k\Gammaspanner of a connected graph G = (V; E) is a subgraph G 0 consisting of all the vertices of V and a subset of the edges, with the additional property that the distance between any two vertices in G 0 is larger than the distance in G by no more than a factor of k. This paper concerns the hardness of finding spanners with a number of edges close to the optimum. It is proved that for every fixed k, approximating the spanner problem is at least as hard as approximating the set cover problem We also consider a weighted version of the spanner problem, and prove an essential difference between the approximability of the case k = 2, and the case k 5. Department of Computer Science, The Open University, 16 Klauzner st., Ramat Aviv, Israel, guyk@shaked.openu.ac.il. 1 Introduction The concept of graph spanners has been studied in several recent papers in the context of communication networks, distributed computing, robotics and computational geometry [ADDJ90, C94, CK94,...
PSelective Sets, and Reducing Search to Decision vs. SelfReducibility
, 1993
"... We obtain several results that distinguish selfreducibility of a language L with the question of whether search reduces to decision for L. These include: (i) If NE 6= E, then there exists a set L in NP \Gamma P such that search reduces to decision for L, search does not nonadaptively reduces to de ..."
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Cited by 39 (9 self)
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We obtain several results that distinguish selfreducibility of a language L with the question of whether search reduces to decision for L. These include: (i) If NE 6= E, then there exists a set L in NP \Gamma P such that search reduces to decision for L, search does not nonadaptively reduces to decision for L, and L is not selfreducible. Funding for this research was provided by the National Science Foundation under grant CCR9002292. y Department of Computer Science, State University of New York at Buffalo, 226 Bell Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260 z Department of Computer Science, State University of New York at Buffalo, 226 Bell Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260 x Research performed while visiting the Department of Computer Science, State University of New York at Buffalo, Jan. 1992Dec. 1992. Current address: Department of Computer Science, University of ElectroCommunications, Chofushi, Tokyo 182, Japan.  Department of Computer Science, State University of New York at Buffalo, 226...