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98
Compressed sensing
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2006
"... We study the notion of Compressed Sensing (CS) as put forward in [14] and related work [20, 3, 4]. The basic idea behind CS is that a signal or image, unknown but supposed to be compressible by a known transform, (eg. wavelet or Fourier), can be subjected to fewer measurements than the nominal numbe ..."
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Cited by 3614 (24 self)
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We study the notion of Compressed Sensing (CS) as put forward in [14] and related work [20, 3, 4]. The basic idea behind CS is that a signal or image, unknown but supposed to be compressible by a known transform, (eg. wavelet or Fourier), can be subjected to fewer measurements than the nominal number of pixels, and yet be accurately reconstructed. The samples are nonadaptive and measure ‘random ’ linear combinations of the transform coefficients. Approximate reconstruction is obtained by solving for the transform coefficients consistent with measured data and having the smallest possible `1 norm. We perform a series of numerical experiments which validate in general terms the basic idea proposed in [14, 3, 5], in the favorable case where the transform coefficients are sparse in the strong sense that the vast majority are zero. We then consider a range of lessfavorable cases, in which the object has all coefficients nonzero, but the coefficients obey an `p bound, for some p ∈ (0, 1]. These experiments show that the basic inequalities behind the CS method seem to involve reasonable constants. We next consider synthetic examples modelling problems in spectroscopy and image pro
Near Optimal Signal Recovery From Random Projections: Universal Encoding Strategies?
, 2004
"... Suppose we are given a vector f in RN. How many linear measurements do we need to make about f to be able to recover f to within precision ɛ in the Euclidean (ℓ2) metric? Or more exactly, suppose we are interested in a class F of such objects— discrete digital signals, images, etc; how many linear m ..."
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Cited by 1520 (20 self)
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Suppose we are given a vector f in RN. How many linear measurements do we need to make about f to be able to recover f to within precision ɛ in the Euclidean (ℓ2) metric? Or more exactly, suppose we are interested in a class F of such objects— discrete digital signals, images, etc; how many linear measurements do we need to recover objects from this class to within accuracy ɛ? This paper shows that if the objects of interest are sparse or compressible in the sense that the reordered entries of a signal f ∈ F decay like a powerlaw (or if the coefficient sequence of f in a fixed basis decays like a powerlaw), then it is possible to reconstruct f to within very high accuracy from a small number of random measurements. typical result is as follows: we rearrange the entries of f (or its coefficients in a fixed basis) in decreasing order of magnitude f  (1) ≥ f  (2) ≥... ≥ f  (N), and define the weakℓp ball as the class F of those elements whose entries obey the power decay law f  (n) ≤ C · n −1/p. We take measurements 〈f, Xk〉, k = 1,..., K, where the Xk are Ndimensional Gaussian
Compressive sampling
, 2006
"... Conventional wisdom and common practice in acquisition and reconstruction of images from frequency data follow the basic principle of the Nyquist density sampling theory. This principle states that to reconstruct an image, the number of Fourier samples we need to acquire must match the desired res ..."
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Cited by 1434 (15 self)
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Conventional wisdom and common practice in acquisition and reconstruction of images from frequency data follow the basic principle of the Nyquist density sampling theory. This principle states that to reconstruct an image, the number of Fourier samples we need to acquire must match the desired resolution of the image, i.e. the number of pixels in the image. This paper surveys an emerging theory which goes by the name of “compressive sampling” or “compressed sensing,” and which says that this conventional wisdom is inaccurate. Perhaps surprisingly, it is possible to reconstruct images or signals of scientific interest accurately and sometimes even exactly from a number of samples which is far smaller than the desired resolution of the image/signal, e.g. the number of pixels in the image. It is believed that compressive sampling has far reaching implications. For example, it suggests the possibility of new data acquisition protocols that translate analog information into digital form with fewer sensors than what was considered necessary. This new sampling theory may come to underlie procedures for sampling and compressing data simultaneously. In this short survey, we provide some of the key mathematical insights underlying this new theory, and explain some of the interactions between compressive sampling and other fields such as statistics, information theory, coding theory, and theoretical computer science.
A Simple Proof of the Restricted Isometry Property for Random Matrices
 CONSTR APPROX
, 2008
"... We give a simple technique for verifying the Restricted Isometry Property (as introduced by Candès and Tao) for random matrices that underlies Compressed Sensing. Our approach has two main ingredients: (i) concentration inequalities for random inner products that have recently provided algorithmical ..."
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Cited by 645 (69 self)
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We give a simple technique for verifying the Restricted Isometry Property (as introduced by Candès and Tao) for random matrices that underlies Compressed Sensing. Our approach has two main ingredients: (i) concentration inequalities for random inner products that have recently provided algorithmically simple proofs of the Johnson–Lindenstrauss lemma; and (ii) covering numbers for finitedimensional balls in Euclidean space. This leads to an elementary proof of the Restricted Isometry Property and brings out connections between Compressed Sensing and the Johnson–Lindenstrauss lemma. As a result, we obtain simple and direct proofs of Kashin’s theorems on widths of finite balls in Euclidean space (and their improvements due to Gluskin) and proofs of the existence of optimal Compressed Sensing measurement matrices. In the process, we also prove that these measurements have a certain universality with respect to the sparsityinducing basis.
Iterative hard thresholding for compressed sensing
 Appl. Comp. Harm. Anal
"... Compressed sensing is a technique to sample compressible signals below the Nyquist rate, whilst still allowing near optimal reconstruction of the signal. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the iterative hard thresholding algorithm when applied to the compressed sensing recovery probl ..."
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Cited by 327 (18 self)
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Compressed sensing is a technique to sample compressible signals below the Nyquist rate, whilst still allowing near optimal reconstruction of the signal. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the iterative hard thresholding algorithm when applied to the compressed sensing recovery problem. We show that the algorithm has the following properties (made more precise in the main text of the paper) • It gives nearoptimal error guarantees. • It is robust to observation noise. • It succeeds with a minimum number of observations. • It can be used with any sampling operator for which the operator and its adjoint can be computed. • The memory requirement is linear in the problem size. Preprint submitted to Elsevier 28 January 2009 • Its computational complexity per iteration is of the same order as the application of the measurement operator or its adjoint. • It requires a fixed number of iterations depending only on the logarithm of a form of signal to noise ratio of the signal. • Its performance guarantees are uniform in that they only depend on properties of the sampling operator and signal sparsity.
Compressed sensing and best kterm approximation
 J. Amer. Math. Soc
, 2009
"... Compressed sensing is a new concept in signal processing where one seeks to minimize the number of measurements to be taken from signals while still retaining the information necessary to approximate them well. The ideas have their origins in certain abstract results from functional analysis and app ..."
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Cited by 292 (12 self)
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Compressed sensing is a new concept in signal processing where one seeks to minimize the number of measurements to be taken from signals while still retaining the information necessary to approximate them well. The ideas have their origins in certain abstract results from functional analysis and approximation theory by Kashin [23] but were recently brought into the forefront by the work of Candès, Romberg and Tao [7, 5, 6] and Donoho [9] who constructed concrete algorithms and showed their promise in application. There remain several fundamental questions on both the theoretical and practical side of compressed sensing. This paper is primarily concerned about one of these theoretical issues revolving around just how well compressed sensing can approximate a given signal from a given budget of fixed linear measurements, as compared to adaptive linear measurements. More precisely, we consider discrete signals x ∈ IR N, allocate n < N linear measurements of x, and we describe the range of k for which these measurements encode enough information to recover x in the sense of ℓp to the accuracy of best kterm approximation. We also consider the problem of having such accuracy only with high probability.
FINDING STRUCTURE WITH RANDOMNESS: PROBABILISTIC ALGORITHMS FOR CONSTRUCTING APPROXIMATE MATRIX DECOMPOSITIONS
"... Lowrank matrix approximations, such as the truncated singular value decomposition and the rankrevealing QR decomposition, play a central role in data analysis and scientific computing. This work surveys and extends recent research which demonstrates that randomization offers a powerful tool for ..."
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Cited by 248 (6 self)
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Lowrank matrix approximations, such as the truncated singular value decomposition and the rankrevealing QR decomposition, play a central role in data analysis and scientific computing. This work surveys and extends recent research which demonstrates that randomization offers a powerful tool for performing lowrank matrix approximation. These techniques exploit modern computational architectures more fully than classical methods and open the possibility of dealing with truly massive data sets. This paper presents a modular framework for constructing randomized algorithms that compute partial matrix decompositions. These methods use random sampling to identify a subspace that captures most of the action of a matrix. The input matrix is then compressed—either explicitly or implicitly—to this subspace, and the reduced matrix is manipulated deterministically to obtain the desired lowrank factorization. In many cases, this approach beats its classical competitors in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness. These claims are supported by extensive numerical experiments and a detailed error analysis. The specific benefits of randomized techniques depend on the computational environment. Consider the model problem of finding the k dominant components of the singular value decomposition
An Elementary Introduction to Modern Convex Geometry
 in Flavors of Geometry
, 1997
"... Introduction to Modern Convex Geometry KEITH BALL Contents Preface 1 Lecture 1. Basic Notions 2 Lecture 2. Spherical Sections of the Cube 8 Lecture 3. Fritz John's Theorem 13 Lecture 4. Volume Ratios and Spherical Sections of the Octahedron 19 Lecture 5. The BrunnMinkowski Inequality and It ..."
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Cited by 175 (3 self)
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Introduction to Modern Convex Geometry KEITH BALL Contents Preface 1 Lecture 1. Basic Notions 2 Lecture 2. Spherical Sections of the Cube 8 Lecture 3. Fritz John's Theorem 13 Lecture 4. Volume Ratios and Spherical Sections of the Octahedron 19 Lecture 5. The BrunnMinkowski Inequality and Its Extensions 25 Lecture 6. Convolutions and Volume Ratios: The Reverse Isoperimetric Problem 32 Lecture 7. The Central Limit Theorem and Large Deviation Inequalities 37 Lecture 8. Concentration of Measure in Geometry 41 Lecture 9. Dvoretzky's Theorem 47 Acknowledgements 53 References 53 Index 55 Preface These notes are based, somewhat loosely, on three series of lectures given by myself, J. Lindenstrauss and G. Schechtman, during the Introductory Workshop in Convex Geometry held at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute in Berkeley, early in 1996. A fourth series was given by B. Bollobas, on rapid mixing and random volume algorithms; they are found els
Geometric approach to error correcting codes and reconstruction of signals
 INT. MATH. RES. NOT
, 2005
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Error Correction via Linear Programming
, 2005
"... Suppose we wish to transmit a vector f ∈ Rn reliably. A frequently discussed approach consists in encoding f with an m by n coding matrix A. Assume now that a fraction of the entries of Af are corrupted in a completely arbitrary fashion. We do not know which entries are affected nor do we know how t ..."
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Cited by 106 (6 self)
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Suppose we wish to transmit a vector f ∈ Rn reliably. A frequently discussed approach consists in encoding f with an m by n coding matrix A. Assume now that a fraction of the entries of Af are corrupted in a completely arbitrary fashion. We do not know which entries are affected nor do we know how they are affected. Is it possible to recover f exactly from the corrupted mdimensional vector y? This paper proves that under suitable conditions on the coding matrix A, the input f is the unique solution to the ℓ1minimization problem (�x�ℓ1: = i xi) min �y − Ag�ℓ1 g∈Rn provided that the fraction of corrupted entries is not too large, i.e. does not exceed some strictly positive constant ρ ∗ (numerical values for ρ ∗ are given). In other words, f can be recovered exactly by solving a simple convex optimization problem; in fact, a linear program. We report on numerical experiments suggesting that ℓ1minimization is amazingly effective; f is recovered exactly even in situations where a very significant fraction of the output is corrupted.