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54
Efficient NormalForm Parsing for Combinatory Categorial Grammar
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 34TH MEETING OF THE ACL
, 1996
"... Under categorial grammars that have powerful rules like composition, a simple nword sentence can have exponentially many parses. Generating all parses is inefficient and obscures whatever true semantic ambiguities are in the input. This paper addresses the problem for a fairly general form of Combi ..."
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Cited by 51 (2 self)
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Under categorial grammars that have powerful rules like composition, a simple nword sentence can have exponentially many parses. Generating all parses is inefficient and obscures whatever true semantic ambiguities are in the input. This paper addresses the problem for a fairly general form of Combinatory Categorial Grammar, by means of an efficient, correct, and easy to implement normalform parsing technique. The parser
Incremental processing and acceptability
 Computational Linguistics
, 2000
"... We describe a lefttoright incremental procedure for the processing of Lambek categorial grammar by proof net construction. A simple metric of complexity, the profile in time of the number of unresolved valencies, correctly predicts a wide variety of performance phenomena including garden pathing, ..."
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Cited by 26 (4 self)
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We describe a lefttoright incremental procedure for the processing of Lambek categorial grammar by proof net construction. A simple metric of complexity, the profile in time of the number of unresolved valencies, correctly predicts a wide variety of performance phenomena including garden pathing, the unacceptability of center embedding, preference for lower attachment, lefttoright quantifier scope preference, and heavy noun phrase shift.
Ontological Domains, Semantic Sorts and Systematic Ambiguity
 International Journal of HumanComputer Studies
, 1995
"... This paper is concerned with some aspects of the relationship between ontologica! knowledge and natural language understanding. More specifically, I will consider how knowledge of ontological domains and knowledge of lexical meaning work together in the interpretation of linguistic expressions. An e ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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This paper is concerned with some aspects of the relationship between ontologica! knowledge and natural language understanding. More specifically, I will consider how knowledge of ontological domains and knowledge of lexical meaning work together in the interpretation of linguistic expressions. An essential assumption is that in accordance with ontological distinctions there are various semantic sorts which linguistic expressions can be divided. The specific purpose of the paper is to explore how under these conditions the intricate problem of systematic ambiguity can be dealt with. Here the term "systematic ambiguity " stands for the phenomenon that a word or a phrase has several possible meanings which systematically related to one another and from which a suitable meaning can be selected dependently on the linguistic and nonlinguistic context of use. Taking into consideration that many predicative expressions impose on their arguments certain sortal selection restrictions. I will deal with the phenomenon that a word or a phrase being systematically ambiguous in some cases adapt itself to the semantic format of the expression it is combined with. Such an adaptation eliminating one or more possible meaning of the word or phrase is in fact a coercion of its semantic sort. I will argue for an approach which takes into account a set of semantic coercion operations to meet sortal constraints. Moreover, I will show how such sort coercions performed in language understanding are sanctioned by world knowledge. © 1995 Academic Press Limited 1.
A deductive account of quantification in LFG
, 1995
"... The relationship between LexicalFunctional Grammar (LFG) functional structures (fstructures) for sentences and their semantic interpretations can be expressed directly in a fragment of linear logic in a way that explains correctly the constrained interactions between quantifier scope ambiguity and ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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The relationship between LexicalFunctional Grammar (LFG) functional structures (fstructures) for sentences and their semantic interpretations can be expressed directly in a fragment of linear logic in a way that explains correctly the constrained interactions between quantifier scope ambiguity and bound anaphora. The use of a deductive framework to account for the compositional properties of quantifying expressions in natural language obviates the need for additional mechanisms, such as Cooper storage, to represent the different scopes that a quantifier might take. Instead, the semantic contribution of a quantifier is recorded as an ordinary logical formula, one whose use in a proof will establish the scope of the quantifier. The properties of linear logic ensure that each quantifier is scoped exactly once. Our analysis of quantifier scope can be seen as a recasting of Pereira’s analysis (Pereira, 1991), which was expressed in higherorder intuitionistic logic. But our use of LFG and linear logic provides a much more direct and computationally more flexible interpretation mechanism for at least the same range of phenomena. We have developed a preliminary Prolog implementation of the linear deductions described in this work.
Generalized Quantifiers in Declarative and Interrogative Sentences
 Journal of Language and Computation
, 2000
"... In this paper we present a logical system able to compute the semantics of both declarative and interrogative sentences. Our proposed analysis takes place at both the sentential and at the discourse level. We use syntactic inference on the sentential level for declarative sentences, while the discou ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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In this paper we present a logical system able to compute the semantics of both declarative and interrogative sentences. Our proposed analysis takes place at both the sentential and at the discourse level. We use syntactic inference on the sentential level for declarative sentences, while the discourse level comes into play for our treatment of questions. Our formalization uses a type logic sensitive to both the syntactic and semantic properties of natural language. We will show how an account of the linguistic data follows naturally from the logical relations inherent in the type logic.
A Unified Semantic Treatment of Singular NP Coordination
 Linguistics and Philosophy
"... this paper I would like to oppose both views. A central technical point to be shown is that in the generalized quantifiers framework, and conjunctions can standardly be treated as uniformly "intersective" to account also for the truth conditions of collective predications like in (3). One general co ..."
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Cited by 16 (8 self)
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this paper I would like to oppose both views. A central technical point to be shown is that in the generalized quantifiers framework, and conjunctions can standardly be treated as uniformly "intersective" to account also for the truth conditions of collective predications like in (3). One general conclusion drawn from this fact is that conservative type theoretical semantics should be able to handle the problem of and in a natural way. Thus, a comprehensive theory of coordination can eliminate the ambiguity stipulation in the first approach above as well as the massive technical and ontological revisions necessitated by the second. Following this observation, we extend the semantic theory of coordinations whose "building blocks" are singular NP's. Traditionally, conjunction and disjunction are treated symmetrically using the standard Boolean definitions. The collective interpretation of sentences like (3) is obtained as a result of type shifting in the denotation of the NP. Type transition, following Partee & Rooth's notion of flexibility, is motivated by type mismatch, here between distributive generalized quantifiers and collective predicates. The shifting operator is shown to be a generalization of the existential determiner, being a part of a "natural" hierarchy of type shifting principles, in the sense of Partee(1986) and van Benthem(1986,1991). This reveals a connection between the phenomena of "free" existential quantification and collective predication in natural languages. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents some background: a brief discussion of previous proposals and a few conceptual and technical preliminaries for the alternative solution developed. Section 3 deals with coordinations of proper names. Section 4 discusses the hierarchy of ope...
Alternating Quantifier Scope in CCG
, 1999
"... The paper shows that movement or equivalent computational structurechanging operations of any kind at the level of logical form can be dispensed with entirely in capturing quantifier scope ambiguity. It offers a new semantics whereby the effects of quantifier scope alternation can be obtained by an ..."
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Cited by 15 (0 self)
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The paper shows that movement or equivalent computational structurechanging operations of any kind at the level of logical form can be dispensed with entirely in capturing quantifier scope ambiguity. It offers a new semantics whereby the effects of quantifier scope alternation can be obtained by an entirely monotonic derivation, without typechanging rules. The paper follows Fodor (1982), Fodor and Sag (1982), and Park (1995, 1996) in viewing many apparent scope ambiguities as arising from referential categories rather than true generalized quantifiers.
Linguistic Side Effects
 In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic and Computer Science (LICS 2003) Workshop on Logic and Computational
, 2003
"... Making linguistic theory is like specifying a programming language... ..."
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Cited by 15 (5 self)
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Making linguistic theory is like specifying a programming language...
Ambiguity and Reasoning
, 1995
"... In this paper, reasoning with ambiguous representations is explored in a formal way, with ambiguities at the level of propositions in propositional logic and predicate logic, and ambiguous representations of scopings in predicate logic as the main examples. First a version of propositional logic wit ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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In this paper, reasoning with ambiguous representations is explored in a formal way, with ambiguities at the level of propositions in propositional logic and predicate logic, and ambiguous representations of scopings in predicate logic as the main examples. First a version of propositional logic with propositional ambiguities is presented and a sequent axiomatization for it is given. This is then extended to predicate logic. Next, predicate logic with scope ambiguities is introduced and discussed, and again a sequent calculus for it is proposed. The conclusion connects the results to natural language semantics, and briefly compares them with existing logics of ambiguity. An appendix gives completeness proofs for our versions of ambiguous propositional and predicate logic. AMS Subject Classification (1991): 03B65, 03B80, 68S05, 68T30, 92K20. CR Subject Classification (1991): F.3.1, F.3.2, I.2.1, I.2.4, I.2.7. Keyword and Phrases: Semantics of Natural Language, Reasoning with Underspec...
Continuation semantics for the Lambek–Grishin calculus
 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION
, 2010
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