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139
Selfimproving algorithms
 in SODA ’06: Proceedings of the seventeenth annual ACMSIAM symposium on Discrete algorithm
"... We investigate ways in which an algorithm can improve its expected performance by finetuning itself automatically with respect to an arbitrary, unknown input distribution. We give such selfimproving algorithms for sorting and computing Delaunay triangulations. The highlights of this work: (i) an al ..."
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Cited by 26 (4 self)
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We investigate ways in which an algorithm can improve its expected performance by finetuning itself automatically with respect to an arbitrary, unknown input distribution. We give such selfimproving algorithms for sorting and computing Delaunay triangulations. The highlights of this work: (i) an algorithm to sort a list of numbers with optimal expected limiting complexity; and (ii) an algorithm to compute the Delaunay triangulation of a set of points with optimal expected limiting complexity. In both cases, the algorithm begins with a training phase during which it adjusts itself to the input distribution, followed by a stationary regime in which the algorithm settles to its optimized incarnation. 1
Improving Exhaustive Search Implies Superpolynomial Lower Bounds
, 2009
"... The P vs NP problem arose from the question of whether exhaustive search is necessary for problems with short verifiable solutions. We do not know if even a slight algorithmic improvement over exhaustive search is universally possible for all NP problems, and to date no major consequences have been ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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The P vs NP problem arose from the question of whether exhaustive search is necessary for problems with short verifiable solutions. We do not know if even a slight algorithmic improvement over exhaustive search is universally possible for all NP problems, and to date no major consequences have been derived from the assumption that an improvement exists. We show that there are natural NP and BPP problems for which minor algorithmic improvements over the trivial deterministic simulation already entail lower bounds such as NEXP ̸ ⊆ P/poly and LOGSPACE ̸ = NP. These results are especially interesting given that similar improvements have been found for many other hard problems. Optimistically, one might hope our results suggest a new path to lower bounds; pessimistically, they show that carrying out the seemingly modest program of finding slightly better algorithms for all search problems may be extremely difficult (if not impossible). We also prove unconditional superpolynomial timespace lower bounds for improving on exhaustive search: there is a problem verifiable with k(n) length witnesses in O(n a) time (for some a and some function k(n) ≤ n) that cannot be solved in k(n) c n a+o(1) time and k(n) c n o(1) space, for every c ≥ 1. While such problems can always be solved by exhaustive search in O(2 k(n) n a) time and O(k(n) + n a) space, we can prove a superpolynomial lower bound in the parameter k(n) when space usage is restricted.
Nonuniform ACC circuit lower bounds
, 2010
"... The class ACC consists of circuit families with constant depth over unbounded fanin AND, OR, NOT, and MODm gates, where m> 1 is an arbitrary constant. We prove: • NTIME[2 n] does not have nonuniform ACC circuits of polynomial size. The size lower bound can be slightly strengthened to quasipolynom ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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The class ACC consists of circuit families with constant depth over unbounded fanin AND, OR, NOT, and MODm gates, where m> 1 is an arbitrary constant. We prove: • NTIME[2 n] does not have nonuniform ACC circuits of polynomial size. The size lower bound can be slightly strengthened to quasipolynomials and other less natural functions. • ENP, the class of languages recognized in 2O(n) time with an NP oracle, doesn’t have nonuniform ACC circuits of 2no(1) size. The lower bound gives an exponential sizedepth tradeoff: for every d there is a δ> 0 such that ENP doesn’t have depthd ACC circuits of size 2nδ. Previously, it was not known whether EXP NP had depth3 polynomial size circuits made out of only MOD6 gates. The highlevel strategy is to design faster algorithms for the circuit satisfiability problem over ACC circuits, then prove that such algorithms entail the above lower bounds. The algorithm combines known properties of ACC with fast rectangular matrix multiplication and dynamic programming, while the second step requires a subtle strengthening of the author’s prior work [STOC’10]. Supported by the Josef Raviv Memorial Fellowship.
Practical Verified Computation with Streaming Interactive Proofs
"... When delegating computation to a service provider, as in the cloud computing paradigm, we seek some reassurance that the output is correct and complete. Yet recomputing the output as a check is inefficient and expensive, and it may not even be feasible to store all the data locally. We are therefore ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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When delegating computation to a service provider, as in the cloud computing paradigm, we seek some reassurance that the output is correct and complete. Yet recomputing the output as a check is inefficient and expensive, and it may not even be feasible to store all the data locally. We are therefore interested in what can be validated by a streaming (sublinear space) user, who cannot store the full input, or perform the full computation herself. Our aim in this work is to advance a recent line of work on “proof systems ” in which the service provider proves the correctness of its output to a user. The goal is to minimize the time and space costs of both parties in generating and checking the proof. Only very recently have there been attempts to implement such proof systems, and thus far these have been quite limited in
Complexity of Judgment Aggregation: Safety of the Agenda
, 2010
"... Aggregating the judgments of a group of agents regarding a set of interdependent propositions can lead to inconsistent outcomes. One of the parameters involved is the agenda, the set of propositions on which agents are asked to express an opinion. We introduce the problem of checking the safety of t ..."
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Cited by 12 (10 self)
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Aggregating the judgments of a group of agents regarding a set of interdependent propositions can lead to inconsistent outcomes. One of the parameters involved is the agenda, the set of propositions on which agents are asked to express an opinion. We introduce the problem of checking the safety of the agenda: for a given agenda, can we guarantee that judgment aggregation will never produce an inconsistent outcome for any aggregation procedure satisfying a given set of axioms? We prove several characterisation results, establishing necessary and sufficient conditions for the safety of the agenda for different combinations of the most important axioms proposed in the literature, and we analyse the computational complexity of checking whether a given agenda satisfies these conditions.
Verifying computations with streaming interactive proofs
 In Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Innovations in Computer Science
, 2010
"... When computation is outsourced, the data owner would like to be assured that the desired computation has been performed correctly by the service provider. In theory, proof systems can give the necessary assurance, but prior work is not sufficiently scalable or practical. In this paper, we develop ne ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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When computation is outsourced, the data owner would like to be assured that the desired computation has been performed correctly by the service provider. In theory, proof systems can give the necessary assurance, but prior work is not sufficiently scalable or practical. In this paper, we develop new proof protocols for verifying computations which are streaming in nature: the verifier (data owner) needs only logarithmic space and a single pass over the input, and after observing the input follows a simple protocol with a prover (service provider) that takes logarithmic communication spread over a logarithmic number of rounds. These ensure that the computation is performed correctly: that the service provider has not made any errors or missed out some data. The guarantee is very strong: even if the service provider deliberately tries to cheat, there is only vanishingly small probability of doing so undetected, while a correct computation is always accepted. We first observe that some theoretical results can be modified to work with streaming verifiers, showing that there are efficient protocols for problems in the complexity classes NP and NC. Our main results then seek to bridge the gap between theory and practice by developing usable protocols for a variety of problems of central importance in streaming and database processing. All these problems require linear space in the traditional streaming model, and therefore our protocols demonstrate that adding a prover can exponentially reduce the effort needed by the verifier. Our experimental results show that our protocols are practical and scalable. 1.
Computational complexity of the landscape
 I
"... Abstract: We study the computational complexity of the physical problem of finding vacua of string theory which agree with data, such as the cosmological constant, and show that such problems are typically NP hard. In particular, we prove that in the BoussoPolchinski model, the problem is NP comple ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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Abstract: We study the computational complexity of the physical problem of finding vacua of string theory which agree with data, such as the cosmological constant, and show that such problems are typically NP hard. In particular, we prove that in the BoussoPolchinski model, the problem is NP complete. We discuss the issues this raises and the possibility that, even if we were to find compelling evidence that some vacuum of string theory describes our universe, we might never be able to find that vacuum explicitly. In a companion paper, we apply this point of view to the question of how early cosmology might select a vacuum. Contents
Arithmetic Circuits: a survey of recent results and open questions
"... A large class of problems in symbolic computation can be expressed as the task of computing some polynomials; and arithmetic circuits form the most standard model for studying the complexity of such computations. This algebraic model of computation attracted a large amount of research in the last fi ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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A large class of problems in symbolic computation can be expressed as the task of computing some polynomials; and arithmetic circuits form the most standard model for studying the complexity of such computations. This algebraic model of computation attracted a large amount of research in the last five decades, partially due to its simplicity and elegance. Being a more structured model than Boolean circuits, one could hope that the fundamental problems of theoretical computer science, such as separating P from NP, will be easier to solve for arithmetic circuits. However, in spite of the appearing simplicity and the vast amount of mathematical tools available, no major breakthrough has been seen. In fact, all the fundamental questions are still open for this model as well. Nevertheless, there has been a lot of progress in the area and beautiful results have been found, some in the last few years. As examples we mention the connection between polynomial identity testing and lower bounds of Kabanets and Impagliazzo, the lower bounds of Raz for multilinear formulas, and two new approaches for proving lower bounds: Geometric Complexity Theory and Elusive Functions. The goal of this monograph is to survey the field of arithmetic circuit complexity, focusing mainly on what we find to be the most interesting and accessible research directions. We aim to cover the main results and techniques, with an emphasis on works from the last two decades. In particular, we
A Survey of Context Data Distribution for Mobile Ubiquitous Systems x
"... The capacity to gather and timely deliver to the service level any relevant information that can characterize serviceprovisioning environment, such as computing resources/capabilities, physical device location, user preferences, and time constraints, usually defined as contextawareness, is widely ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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The capacity to gather and timely deliver to the service level any relevant information that can characterize serviceprovisioning environment, such as computing resources/capabilities, physical device location, user preferences, and time constraints, usually defined as contextawareness, is widely recognized as a core function for the development of modern ubiquitous and mobile systems. Much work has been done to enable contextawareness and to ease the diffusion of contextaware services; at the same time, several middleware solutions have been designed to transparently implement context management and provisioning in the mobile system. However, to the best of our knowledge, an indepth analysis of the context data distribution, namely the function in charge of distributing context data to interested entities, is still missing. Starting from the core assumption that only effective and efficient context data distribution can pave the way to the deployment of truly contextaware services, this paper aims at putting together current research efforts to derive an original and holistic view of the existing literature. We present a unified architectural model and a new taxonomy for context data distribution, by considering and comparing a large number of solutions. Finally, based on our analysis, we
Resolving the conflict between generality and plausibility in verified computation. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2012/622
, 2012
"... Abstract. The area of proofbased verified computation (outsourced computation built atop probabilistically checkable proofs and cryptographic machinery) has lately seen renewed interest. Although recent work has made great strides in reducing the overhead of naive applications of the theory, these ..."
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Cited by 10 (4 self)
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Abstract. The area of proofbased verified computation (outsourced computation built atop probabilistically checkable proofs and cryptographic machinery) has lately seen renewed interest. Although recent work has made great strides in reducing the overhead of naive applications of the theory, these schemes still cannot be considered practical. A core issue is that the work for the server is immense, in general; it is practical only for handcompiled computations that can be expressed in special forms. This paper addresses that problem. Provided one is willing to batch verification, we develop a protocol that achieves the efficiency of the best manually constructed protocols in the literature yet applies to most computations. We show that Quadratic Arithmetic Programs, a new formalism for representing computations efficiently, can yield a particularly efficient PCP that integrates easily into the core protocols, resulting in a server whose work is roughly linear in the running time of the computation. We implement this protocol in the context of a system, called Zaatar, that includes a compiler and a GPU implementation. Zaatar is almost usable for real problems—without specialpurpose tailoring. We argue that many (but not all) of the next research questions in verified computation are questions in secure systems. 1