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Query optimization in database systems
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1984
"... Efficient methods of processing unanticipated queries are a crucial prerequisite for the success of generalized database management systems. A wide variety of approaches to improve the performance of query evaluation algorithms have been proposed: logicbased and semantic transformations, fast imple ..."
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Cited by 207 (0 self)
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Efficient methods of processing unanticipated queries are a crucial prerequisite for the success of generalized database management systems. A wide variety of approaches to improve the performance of query evaluation algorithms have been proposed: logicbased and semantic transformations, fast implementations of basic operations, and combinatorial or heuristic algorithms for generating alternative access plans and choosing among them. These methods are presented in the framework of a general query evaluation procedure using the relational calculus representation of queries. In addition, nonstandard query optimization issues such as higher level query evaluation, query optimization in distributed databases, and use of database machines are addressed. The focus, however, is on query optimization in centralized database systems.
Decomposition  a strategy for query processing
 ACM Transactions on Database Systems
, 1976
"... Strategy for processing multivariable queries in the database management system INGRES is considered. The general procedure is to decompose the query into a sequence of onevariable queries by alternating between (a) reduction: breaking off components of the query which are joined to it by a single ..."
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Cited by 82 (3 self)
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Strategy for processing multivariable queries in the database management system INGRES is considered. The general procedure is to decompose the query into a sequence of onevariable queries by alternating between (a) reduction: breaking off components of the query which are joined to it by a single variable, and (b) tuple substitution: substituting for one of the variables a tuple at a time. Algorithms for reduction and for choosing the variable to be substituted are given. In most cases the latter decision depends on estimation of costs; heuristic procedures for making such estimates are outlined.
Query optimization in a memoryresident domain relational calculus database system
 ACM Transactions on Database Systems
, 1990
"... We present techniques for optimizing queries in memoryresident database systems. Optimization techniques in memoryresident database systems differ significantly from those in conventional diskresident database systems. In this paper we address the following aspects of query optimization in such s ..."
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Cited by 30 (3 self)
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We present techniques for optimizing queries in memoryresident database systems. Optimization techniques in memoryresident database systems differ significantly from those in conventional diskresident database systems. In this paper we address the following aspects of query optimization in such systems and present specific solutions for them: (1) a new approach to developing a CPUintensive cost model; (2) new optimization strategies for mainmemory query processing; (3) new insight into join algorithms and access structures that take advantage of memory residency of data; and (4) the effect of the operating system’s scheduling algorithm on the memoryresidency assumption. We present an interesting result that a major cost of processing queries in memoryresident database systems is incurred by evaluation of predicates. We discuss optimization techniques using the OfficebyExample (OBE) that has been under development at IBM Research. We also present the results of performance measurements, which prove to be excellent in the current state of the art. Despite recent work on memoryresident database systems, query optimization aspects in these systems have not been well studied. We believe this paper opens the issues of query optimization in memoryresident database systems and presents practical solutions to them.
Separability as an approach to physical database design
, 1981
"... Abstract A theoretical approach to the optimal design of a large multifile'physical database is presented. The design algorithm is based on the theory that, given a set of join methods that satisfy a certain property called separability, the problem of optimal assignment of access structures to the ..."
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Cited by 18 (7 self)
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Abstract A theoretical approach to the optimal design of a large multifile'physical database is presented. The design algorithm is based on the theory that, given a set of join methods that satisfy a certain property called separability, the problem of optimal assignment of access structures to the whole database can be reduced to the subproblem of optimizing individual relations independently of one another. Coupling factors are defined to represent all the interactions among the relations. This approach not only reduces the complexity of the problem significantly, but also provides a better understanding of underlying mechanisms. Index TermsBlock accesses, index selection, join methods, physical database design, query optimization, selectivity. I.
Optimization of query evaluation algorithms
 ACM Trans. Database Syst
, 1979
"... A model of database storage and access is presented. The model represents many evaluation algorithms as special cases, and helps to break a complex algorithm into simple access operations. Generalized access cost equations associated with the model are developed and analyzed. Optimization of these c ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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A model of database storage and access is presented. The model represents many evaluation algorithms as special cases, and helps to break a complex algorithm into simple access operations. Generalized access cost equations associated with the model are developed and analyzed. Optimization of these cost equations yields an optimal access algorithm which can be synthesized by a query subsystem whose design is based on the modular access operations.
EQUIVALENCES AMONG RELATIONAL EXPRESSIONS*
"... Abstract. Many database queries can be formulated in terms of expressions whose operands represent tables of information (relations) and whose operators are the relational operations select, project, and join. This paper studies the equivalence problem for these relational expressions, with expressi ..."
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Abstract. Many database queries can be formulated in terms of expressions whose operands represent tables of information (relations) and whose operators are the relational operations select, project, and join. This paper studies the equivalence problem for these relational expressions, with expression optimization in mind. A matrix, called a tableau, is proposed as a natural representative for the value of an expression. It is shown how tableaux can be made to reflect functional dependencies among attributes. A polynomial time algorithm is presented for the equivalence of tableaux that correspond to an important subset of expressions, although the equivalence problem is shown to be NPcomplete under slightly more general circumstances. 1. Introduction. Codd’s relational algebra is a highlevel query language in which questions can be posed simply and succinctly [9], 11]. Concepts from relational algebra have been incorporated into the design of several new database query languages [13]. Expressions in relational algebra manipulate tables of information (called relations) by means of highlevel operations such as select, project, and join. A disadvantage
Efficient Optimization of a Class of Relational Expressions
"... The design of several database query languages has been influenced by Codd’s relational algebra. This paper discusses the difficulty of optimizing queries based on the relational algebra operations select, project, and join. A matrix, called a tableau, is proposed as a useful device for representing ..."
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The design of several database query languages has been influenced by Codd’s relational algebra. This paper discusses the difficulty of optimizing queries based on the relational algebra operations select, project, and join. A matrix, called a tableau, is proposed as a useful device for representing the value of a query, and optimization of queries is couched in terms of finding a minimal tableau equivalent to a given one. Functional dependencies can be used to imply additional equivalences among tableaux. Although the optimization problem is NPcomplete, a polynomial time algorithm exists to optimize tableaux that correspond to an important subclass of queries.