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253
Abduction in Logic Programming
"... Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over th ..."
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Cited by 538 (74 self)
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Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over the last ten years and to take a critical view of these developments from several perspectives: logical, epistemological, computational and suitability to application. The paper attempts to expose some of the challenges and prospects for the further development of the field.
Extending and Implementing the Stable Model Semantics
, 2002
"... A novel logic program like language, weight constraint rules, is developed for answer set programming purposes. It generalizes normal logic programs by allowing weight constraints in place of literals to represent, e.g., cardinality and resource constraints and by providing optimization capabilities ..."
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Cited by 312 (5 self)
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A novel logic program like language, weight constraint rules, is developed for answer set programming purposes. It generalizes normal logic programs by allowing weight constraints in place of literals to represent, e.g., cardinality and resource constraints and by providing optimization capabilities. A declarative semantics is developed which extends the stable model semantics of normal programs. The computational complexity of the language is shown to be similar to that of normal programs under the stable model semantics. A simple embedding of general weight constraint rules to a small subclass of the language called basic constraint rules is devised. An implementation of the language, the smodels system, is developed based on this embedding. It uses a two level architecture consisting of a frontend and a kernel language implementation. The frontend allows restricted use of variables and functions and compiles general weight constraint rules to basic constraint rules. A major part of the work is the development of an ecient search procedure for computing stable models for this kernel language. The procedure is compared with and empirically tested against satis ability checkers and an implementation of the stable model semantics. It offers a competitive implementation of the stable model semantics for normal programs and attractive performance for problems where the new types of rules provide a compact representation.
Stable models and an alternative logic programming paradigm
 In The Logic Programming Paradigm: a 25Year Perspective
, 1999
"... In this paper we reexamine the place and role of stable model semantics in logic programming and contrast it with a least Herbrand model approach to Horn programs. We demonstrate that inherent features of stable model semantics naturally lead to a logic programming system that offers an interesting ..."
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Cited by 250 (18 self)
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In this paper we reexamine the place and role of stable model semantics in logic programming and contrast it with a least Herbrand model approach to Horn programs. We demonstrate that inherent features of stable model semantics naturally lead to a logic programming system that offers an interesting alternative to more traditional logic programming styles of Horn logic programming, stratified logic programming and logic programming with wellfounded semantics. The proposed approach is based on the interpretation of program clauses as constraints. In this setting programs do not describe a single intended model, but a family of stable models. These stable models encode solutions to the constraint satisfaction problem described by the program. Our approach imposes restrictions on the syntax of logic programs. In particular, function symbols are eliminated from the language. We argue that the resulting logic programming system is wellattuned to problems in the class NP, has a welldefined domain of applications, and an emerging methodology of programming. We point out that what makes the whole approach viable is recent progress in implementations of algorithms to compute stable models of propositional logic programs. 1
ASSAT: Computing Answer Sets of a Logic Program by SAT Solvers
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2002
"... We propose a new translation from normal logic programs with constraints under the answer set semantics to propositional logic. Given a normal logic program, we show that by adding, for each loop in the program, a corresponding loop formula to the program’s completion, we obtain a onetoone corresp ..."
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Cited by 201 (6 self)
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We propose a new translation from normal logic programs with constraints under the answer set semantics to propositional logic. Given a normal logic program, we show that by adding, for each loop in the program, a corresponding loop formula to the program’s completion, we obtain a onetoone correspondence between the answer sets of the program and the models of the resulting propositional theory. In the worst case, there may be an exponential number of loops in a logic program. To address this problem, we propose an approach that adds loop formulas a few at a time, selectively. Based on these results, we implement a system called ASSAT(X), depending on the SAT solver X used, for computing one answer set of a normal logic program with constraints. We test the system on a variety of benchmarks including the graph coloring, the blocks world planning, and Hamiltonian Circuit domains. Our experimental results show that in these domains, for the task of generating one answer set of a normal logic program, our system has a clear edge over the stateofart answer set programming systems Smodels and DLV. 1 1
Answer Set Planning
"... In "answer set programming," solutions to a problem are represented by answer sets, and not by answer substitutions produced in response to a query, as in conventional logic programming. Instead of Prolog, answer set programming uses software systems capable of computing answer sets. This paper is a ..."
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Cited by 154 (6 self)
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In "answer set programming," solutions to a problem are represented by answer sets, and not by answer substitutions produced in response to a query, as in conventional logic programming. Instead of Prolog, answer set programming uses software systems capable of computing answer sets. This paper is about applications of this idea to planning.
HeavyTailed Phenomena in Satisfiability and Constraint Satisfaction Problems
 J. of Autom. Reasoning
, 2000
"... Abstract. We study the runtime distributions of backtrack procedures for propositional satisfiability and constraint satisfaction. Such procedures often exhibit a large variability in performance. Our study reveals some intriguing properties of such distributions: They are often characterized by ver ..."
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Cited by 148 (27 self)
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Abstract. We study the runtime distributions of backtrack procedures for propositional satisfiability and constraint satisfaction. Such procedures often exhibit a large variability in performance. Our study reveals some intriguing properties of such distributions: They are often characterized by very long tails or “heavy tails”. We will show that these distributions are best characterized by a general class of distributions that can have infinite moments (i.e., an infinite mean, variance, etc.). Such nonstandard distributions have recently been observed in areas as diverse as economics, statistical physics, and geophysics. They are closely related to fractal phenomena, whose study was introduced by Mandelbrot. We also show how random restarts can effectively eliminate heavytailed behavior. Furthermore, for harder problem instances, we observe long tails on the lefthand side of the distribution, which is indicative of a nonnegligible fraction of relatively short, successful runs. A rapid restart strategy eliminates heavytailed behavior and takes advantage of short runs, significantly reducing expected solution time. We demonstrate speedups of up to two orders of magnitude on SAT and CSP encodings of hard problems in planning, scheduling, and circuit synthesis. Key words: satisfiability, constraint satisfaction, heavy tails, backtracking 1.
Answer Set Programming and Plan Generation
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 2002
"... The idea of answer set programming is to represent a given computational problem by a logic program whose answer sets correspond to solutions, and then use an answer set solver, such as smodels or dlv, to find an answer set for this program. Applications of this method to planning are related to the ..."
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Cited by 137 (5 self)
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The idea of answer set programming is to represent a given computational problem by a logic program whose answer sets correspond to solutions, and then use an answer set solver, such as smodels or dlv, to find an answer set for this program. Applications of this method to planning are related to the line of research on the frame problem that started with the invention of formal nonmonotonic reasoning in 1980.
Logic Programming and Knowledge Representation  the AProlog perspective
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2002
"... In this paper we give a short introduction to logic programming approach to knowledge representation and reasoning. The intention is to help the reader to develop a 'feel' for the field's history and some of its recent developments. The discussion is mainly limited to logic programs under the answer ..."
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Cited by 87 (0 self)
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In this paper we give a short introduction to logic programming approach to knowledge representation and reasoning. The intention is to help the reader to develop a 'feel' for the field's history and some of its recent developments. The discussion is mainly limited to logic programs under the answer set semantics. For understanding of approaches to logic programming build on wellfounded semantics, general theories of argumentation, abductive reasoning, etc., the reader is referred to other publications.
Unfolding Partiality and Disjunctions in Stable Model Semantics
 Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR 2000), April 1215
, 2000
"... The paper studies an implementation methodology for partial and disjunctive stable models where partiality and disjunctions are unfolded from a logic program so that an implementation of stable models for normal (disjunctionfree) programs can be used as the core inference engine. The unfolding is d ..."
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Cited by 82 (17 self)
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The paper studies an implementation methodology for partial and disjunctive stable models where partiality and disjunctions are unfolded from a logic program so that an implementation of stable models for normal (disjunctionfree) programs can be used as the core inference engine. The unfolding is done in two separate steps. Firstly, it is shown that partial stable models can be captured by total stable models using a simple linear and modular program transformation. Hence, reasoning tasks concerning partial models can be solved using an implementation of total models. Disjunctive partial stable models have been lacking implementations which now become available as the translation handles also the disjunctive case. Secondly, it is shown how total stable models of disjunctive programs can be determined by computing stable models for normal programs. Hence, an implementation of stable models of normal programs can be used as a core engine for implementing disjunctiv...
A Logic Programming Approach to KnowledgeState Planning, II: The DLV System
, 2001
"... In Part I of this series of papers, we have proposed a new logicbased planning language, called K. This language facilitates the description of transitions between states of knowledge and it is well suited for planning under incomplete knowledge. Nonetheless, K also supports the representation of t ..."
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Cited by 81 (30 self)
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In Part I of this series of papers, we have proposed a new logicbased planning language, called K. This language facilitates the description of transitions between states of knowledge and it is well suited for planning under incomplete knowledge. Nonetheless, K also supports the representation of transitions between states of the world (i.e., states of complete knowledge) as a special case, proving to be very flexible. In the present Part II, we describe the DLV planning system, which implements K on top of the disjunctive logic programming system DLV. This novel planning system allows for solving hard planning problems, including secure planning under incomplete initial states (often called conformant planning in the literature), which cannot be solved at all by other logicbased planning systems such as traditional satisfiability planners. We present a detailed comparison of the system to several stateoftheart conformant planning systems, both at the level of system features and on benchmark problems. Our results indicate that, thanks to the power of knowledgestate problem encoding, the DLV system is competitive even with special purpose conformant planning systems, and it often supplies a more natural and simple representation of the planning problems.