Results 1  10
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88
Defective Coloring Revisited
 J. Graph Theory
, 1995
"... A graph is (k; d)colorable if one can color the vertices with k colors such that no vertex is adjacent to more than d vertices of the same color. In this paper we investigate the existence of such colorings in surfaces and the complexity of coloring problems. It is shown that a toroidal graph is (3 ..."
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Cited by 20 (0 self)
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A graph is (k; d)colorable if one can color the vertices with k colors such that no vertex is adjacent to more than d vertices of the same color. In this paper we investigate the existence of such colorings in surfaces and the complexity of coloring problems. It is shown that a toroidal graph is (3; 2) and (5; 1) colorable, and that a graph of genus fl is (Ø fl =(d + 1) +4; d)colorable, where Ø fl is the maximum chromatic number of a graph embeddable on the surface of genus fl. It is shown that the (2; k)coloring, for k 1, and the (3; 1)coloring problems are NPcomplete even for planar graphs. In general graphs (k; d)coloring is NPcomplete for k 3, d 0. The tightness is considered. Also, generalizations to defects of several algorithms for approximate (proper) coloring are presented. 1 Introduction We define a (k; d)coloring of a graph as a coloring of the vertices with k colors such that each vertex has at most d neighbors of its same color. For a graph G we define Ø d ...
Minimum Cuts and Shortest Homologous Cycles
 SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY
, 2009
"... We describe the first algorithms to compute minimum cuts in surfaceembedded graphs in nearlinear time. Given an undirected graph embedded on an orientable surface of genus g, with two specified vertices s and t, our algorithm computes a minimum (s, t)cut in g O(g) n log n time. Except for the spec ..."
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Cited by 17 (7 self)
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We describe the first algorithms to compute minimum cuts in surfaceembedded graphs in nearlinear time. Given an undirected graph embedded on an orientable surface of genus g, with two specified vertices s and t, our algorithm computes a minimum (s, t)cut in g O(g) n log n time. Except for the special case of planar graphs, for which O(n log n)time algorithms have been known for more than 20 years, the best previous time bounds for finding minimum cuts in embedded graphs follow from algorithms for general sparse graphs. A slight generalization of our minimumcut algorithm computes a minimumcost subgraph in every Z2homology class. We also prove that finding a minimumcost subgraph homologous to a single input cycle is NPhard.
Smarandache MultiSpace Theory
, 2011
"... Our WORLD is a multiple one both shown by the natural world and human beings. For example, the observation enables one knowing that there are infinite planets in the universe. Each of them revolves on its own axis and has its own seasons. In the human society, these rich or poor, big or small countr ..."
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Cited by 14 (5 self)
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Our WORLD is a multiple one both shown by the natural world and human beings. For example, the observation enables one knowing that there are infinite planets in the universe. Each of them revolves on its own axis and has its own seasons. In the human society, these rich or poor, big or small countries appear and each of them has its own system. All of these show that our WORLD is not in homogenous but in multiple. Besides, all things that one can acknowledge is determined by his eyes, or ears, or nose, or tongue, or body or passions, i.e., these six organs, which means the WORLD consists of have and not have parts for human beings. For thousands years, human being has never stopped his steps for exploring its behaviors of all kinds. We are used to the idea that our space has three dimensions: length, breadth and height with time providing the fourth dimension of spacetime by Einstein. In the string or superstring theories, we encounter 10 dimensions. However, we do not even know what the right degree of freedom is, as Witten said. Today, we have known two heartening notions for sciences. One is the Smarandache multispace came into being by purely logic.
Chromatic Numbers of Quadrangulations on Closed Surfaces
"... It has been shown that every quadrangulation on any nonspherical orientable closed surface with a sufficiently large representativity has chromatic number at most 3. In this paper, we show that a quadrangulation G on a nonorientable closed surface N k has chromatic number at least 4 if G has a cycl ..."
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Cited by 13 (3 self)
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It has been shown that every quadrangulation on any nonspherical orientable closed surface with a sufficiently large representativity has chromatic number at most 3. In this paper, we show that a quadrangulation G on a nonorientable closed surface N k has chromatic number at least 4 if G has a cycle of odd length which cuts open N k into an orientable surface. Moreover, we characterize the quadrangulations on the torus and the Klein bottle with chromatic number exactly 3. By our characterization, we prove that every quadrangulation on the torus with representativity at least 9 has chromatic number at most 3, and that a quadrangulation on the Klein bottle with representativity at least 7 has chromatic number at most 3 if a cycle cutting open the Klein bottle into an annulus has even length. As an application of our theory, we prove that every nonorientable closed surface N k admits an eulerian triangulation with chromatic number at least 5 which has arbitrarily large representativity.
Graphs as rotations
 KAM Series, 96327, Prague,1996
"... Using a notation of corner between edges when graph has a fixed rotation, i.e. cyclical order of edges around vertices, we define combinatorial objects combinatorial maps as pairs of permutations, one for vertices and one for faces. Further, we define multiplication of these objects, that coincides ..."
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Cited by 12 (9 self)
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Using a notation of corner between edges when graph has a fixed rotation, i.e. cyclical order of edges around vertices, we define combinatorial objects combinatorial maps as pairs of permutations, one for vertices and one for faces. Further, we define multiplication of these objects, that coincides with the multiplication of permutations. We consider closed under multiplication classes of combinatorial maps that consist of closed classes of combinatorial maps with fixed edges where each such class is defined by a knot. One class among them is special, containing selfconjugate maps. 1
Planar decompositions and the crossing number of graphs with an excluded minor
 IN GRAPH DRAWING 2006; LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE 4372
, 2007
"... Tree decompositions of graphs are of fundamental importance in structural and algorithmic graph theory. Planar decompositions generalise tree decompositions by allowing an arbitrary planar graph to index the decomposition. We prove that every graph that excludes a fixed graph as a minor has a planar ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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Tree decompositions of graphs are of fundamental importance in structural and algorithmic graph theory. Planar decompositions generalise tree decompositions by allowing an arbitrary planar graph to index the decomposition. We prove that every graph that excludes a fixed graph as a minor has a planar decomposition with bounded width and a linear number of bags. The crossing number of a graph is the minimum number of crossings in a drawing of the graph in the plane. We prove that planar decompositions are intimately related to the crossing number. In particular, a graph with bounded degree has linear crossing number if and only if it has a planar decomposition with bounded width and linear order. It follows from the above result about planar decompositions that every graph with bounded degree and an excluded minor has linear crossing number. Analogous results are proved for the convex and rectilinear crossing numbers. In particular, every graph with bounded degree and bounded treewidth has linear convex crossing number, and every K3,3minorfree graph with bounded degree has linear rectilinear crossing number.
Minors in Lifts of Graphs
 In SODA
, 2004
"... We study here lifts and random lifts of graphs, as defined in [1]. We consider the Hadwiger number # and the Hajos number # of # lifts of K , and analyze their extremal as well as their typical values (that is, for random lifts). When # = 2, we show that n, and random lifts achieve the lo ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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We study here lifts and random lifts of graphs, as defined in [1]. We consider the Hadwiger number # and the Hajos number # of # lifts of K , and analyze their extremal as well as their typical values (that is, for random lifts). When # = 2, we show that n, and random lifts achieve the lower bound (as n # #).
Triangular embeddings of complete graphs from graceful labellings of paths
"... We show that to each graceful labelling of a path on 2s + 1 vertices, s ≥ 2, there corresponds a current assignment on a 3valent graph which generates at least 2 2s cyclic oriented triangular embeddings of a complete graph on 12s + 7 vertices. We also show that in this correspondence, two distinct ..."
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Cited by 10 (0 self)
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We show that to each graceful labelling of a path on 2s + 1 vertices, s ≥ 2, there corresponds a current assignment on a 3valent graph which generates at least 2 2s cyclic oriented triangular embeddings of a complete graph on 12s + 7 vertices. We also show that in this correspondence, two distinct graceful labellings never give isomorphic oriented embeddings. Since the number of graceful labellings of paths on 2s + 1 vertices grows asymptotically at least as fast as (5/3) 2s, this method gives at least 11 s distinct cyclic oriented triangular embedding of a complete graph of order 12s + 7 for all sufficiently large s. 1
Nordhaus–Gaddumtype theorems for decompositions into many parts
 J. Graph Theory
"... into many parts ..."
Bridges between Geometry and Graph Theory
 in Geometry at Work, C.A. Gorini, ed., MAA Notes 53
"... Graph theory owes many powerful ideas and constructions to geometry. Several wellknown families of graphs arise as intersection graphs of certain geometric objects. Skeleta of polyhedra are natural sources of graphs. Operations on polyhedra and maps give rise to various interesting graphs. Another ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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Graph theory owes many powerful ideas and constructions to geometry. Several wellknown families of graphs arise as intersection graphs of certain geometric objects. Skeleta of polyhedra are natural sources of graphs. Operations on polyhedra and maps give rise to various interesting graphs. Another source of graphs are geometric configurations where the relation of incidence determines the adjacency in the graph. Interesting graphs possess some inner structure which allows them to be described by labeling smaller graphs. The notion of covering graphs is explored.