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The HahnBanach Theorem in Type Theory
, 1997
"... We give the basic deønitions for pointfree functional analysis and present constructive proofs of the Alaoglu and HahnBanach theorems in the setting of formal topology. 1 Introduction We present the basic concepts and deønitions needed in a pointfree approach to functional analysis via formal topol ..."
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We give the basic deønitions for pointfree functional analysis and present constructive proofs of the Alaoglu and HahnBanach theorems in the setting of formal topology. 1 Introduction We present the basic concepts and deønitions needed in a pointfree approach to functional analysis via formal topology. Our main results are the constructive proofs of localic formulations of the Alaoglu and HellyHahnBanach 1 theorems. Earlier pointfree formulations of the HahnBanach theorem, in a topostheoretic setting, were presented by Mulvey and Pelletier (1987,1991) and by Vermeulen (1986). A constructive proof based on points was given by Bishop (1967). In the formulation of his proof, the norm of the linear functional is preserved to an arbitrary degree by the extension and a counterexample shows that the norm, in general, is not preserved exactly. As usual in pointfree topology, our guideline is to deøne the objects under analysis as formal points of a suitable formal space. After this has...
Notes on the AtiyahSinger Index Theorem
"... This is arguably one of the deepest and most beautiful results in modern geometry, and in my view is a must know for any geometer/topologist. It has to do with elliptic partial differential operators on a compact manifold, namely those operators P with the property that dim ker P, dim coker P < ∞ ..."
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This is arguably one of the deepest and most beautiful results in modern geometry, and in my view is a must know for any geometer/topologist. It has to do with elliptic partial differential operators on a compact manifold, namely those operators P with the property that dim ker P, dim coker P < ∞. In general these integers are very difficult to compute without some very precise information about P. Remarkably, their difference, called the index of P, is a “soft ” quantity in the sense that its determination can be carried out relying only on topological tools. You should compare this with the following elementary situation. Suppose we are given a linear operator A: C m → C n. From this information alone we cannot compute the dimension of its kernel or of its cokernel. We can however compute their difference which, according to the ranknullity theorem for n×m matrices must be dim ker A−dim coker A = m − n. Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer have shown in the 60’s that the index of an elliptic operator is determined by certain cohomology classes on the background manifold. These cohomology classes are in turn topological invariants of the vector bundles on which the differential operator acts and the homotopy class of the principal symbol of the operator. Moreover, they proved that