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A Theory of Quantum ErrorCorrecting Codes
 Phys. Rev. A
, 1996
"... Quantum Error Correction will be necessary for preserving coherent states against noise and other unwanted interactions in quantum computation and communication. We develop a general theory of quantum error correction based on encoding states into larger Hilbert spaces subject to known interactions. ..."
Abstract

Cited by 74 (7 self)
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Quantum Error Correction will be necessary for preserving coherent states against noise and other unwanted interactions in quantum computation and communication. We develop a general theory of quantum error correction based on encoding states into larger Hilbert spaces subject to known interactions. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the perfect recovery of an encoded state after its degradation by an interaction. The conditions depend only on the behavior of the logical states. We use them to give a recovery operator independent definition of errorcorrecting codes. We relate this definition to four others: The existence of a left inverse of the interaction, an explicit representation of the error syndrome using tensor products, perfect recovery of the completely entangled state, and an information theoretic identity. Two notions of fidelity and error for imperfect recovery are introduced, one for pure and the other for entangled states. The latter is more appropriate w...
On universal and faulttolerant quantum computing: a novel basis and a new constructive proof of universality for Shor’s basis
 In Proceedings of the 40th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1999
"... A novel universal and faulttolerant basis (set of gates) for quantum computation is described. Such a set is necessary to perform quantum computation in a realistic noisy environment. The new basis consists of two singlequbit gates 1 (Hadamard and σz 4), and one doublequbit gate (ControlledNOT). ..."
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Cited by 26 (1 self)
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A novel universal and faulttolerant basis (set of gates) for quantum computation is described. Such a set is necessary to perform quantum computation in a realistic noisy environment. The new basis consists of two singlequbit gates 1 (Hadamard and σz 4), and one doublequbit gate (ControlledNOT). Since the set consisting of ControlledNOT and Hadamard gates is not universal, the new basis achieves universality by including only one additional elementary (in the sense that it does not include angles that are irrational multiples of π) singlequbit gate, and hence, is potentially the simplest universal basis that one can construct. We also provide an alternative proof of universality for the only other known class of universal and faulttolerant basis proposed in [25, 17]. 1
Prospects for Quantum Coherent Computation Using Superconducting Electronics
 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond
, 1997
"... We discuss the prospects and challenges for implementing a quantum computer using superconducting electronics. It appears that Josephson junction devices operating at milliKelvin temperatures can achieve a quantum dephasing time of milliseconds, allowing quantum coherent computations of 10 10 or ..."
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Cited by 23 (9 self)
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We discuss the prospects and challenges for implementing a quantum computer using superconducting electronics. It appears that Josephson junction devices operating at milliKelvin temperatures can achieve a quantum dephasing time of milliseconds, allowing quantum coherent computations of 10 10 or more steps. This figure of merit is comparable to that of atomic systems currently being studied for quantum computation. I. INTRODUCTION In quantum coherent computation information is coded not just as "1" and "0" but also as coherent superpositions of the "1" and "0" states of a quantum mechanical two state system. Recent experiments from atomic and optical physics have demonstrated the creation and manipulation of such quantum mechanical bits, socalled `qubits' [1][3], and consideration is being given to the prospects for constructing simple quantum computers. In this paper we will discuss the prospects for a superconducting electronics implementation of quantum computation. The great ...
An evaluation framework and instruction set architecture for iontrap based quantum microarchitectures
 In Proc. 32nd Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture
, 2005
"... The theoretical study of quantum computation has yielded efficient algorithms for some traditionally hard problems. Correspondingly, experimental work on the underlying physical implementation technology has progressed steadily. However, almost no work has yet been done which explores the architectu ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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The theoretical study of quantum computation has yielded efficient algorithms for some traditionally hard problems. Correspondingly, experimental work on the underlying physical implementation technology has progressed steadily. However, almost no work has yet been done which explores the architecture design space of large scale quantum computing systems. In this paper, we present a set of tools that enable the quantitative evaluation of architectures for quantum computers. The infrastructure we created comprises a complete compilation and simulation system for computers containing thousands of quantum bits. We begin by compiling complete algorithms into a quantum instruction set. This ISA enables the simple manipulation of quantum state. Another tool we developed automatically transforms quantum software into an equivalent, faulttolerant version required to operate on real quantum devices. Next, our infrastructure transforms the ISA into a set of lowlevel micro architecture specific control operations. In the future, these operations can be used to directly control a quantum computer. For now, our simulation framework quickly uses them to determine the reliability of the application for the target micro architecture. Finally, we propose a simple, regular architecture for iontrap based quantum computers. Using our software infrastructure, we evaluate the design trade offs of this micro architecture. 1
New trends in quantum computing
 Proceedings of 13th Annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science
, 1996
"... Abstract. Classical and quantum information are very different. Together they can perform feats that neither could achieve alone, such as quantum computing, quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. Some of the applications range from helping to preventing spies from reading private communicat ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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Abstract. Classical and quantum information are very different. Together they can perform feats that neither could achieve alone, such as quantum computing, quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. Some of the applications range from helping to preventing spies from reading private communications. Among the tools that will facilitate their implementation, we note quantum purification and quantum error correction. Although some of these ideas are still beyond the grasp of current technology, quantum cryptography has been implemented and the prospects are encouraging for smallscale prototypes of quantum computation devices before the end of the millennium. 1
LAUR961300 A Theory of Quantum ErrorCorrecting Codes
, 1995
"... Quantum Error Correction will be necessary for preserving coherent states against noise and other unwanted interactions in quantum computation and communication. We develop a general theory of quantum error correction based on encoding states into larger Hilbert spaces subject to known interactions. ..."
Abstract
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Quantum Error Correction will be necessary for preserving coherent states against noise and other unwanted interactions in quantum computation and communication. We develop a general theory of quantum error correction based on encoding states into larger Hilbert spaces subject to known interactions. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the perfect recovery of an encoded state after its degradation by an interaction. The conditions depend only on the behavior of the logical states. We use them to give a recovery operator independent definition of errorcorrecting codes. We relate this definition to four others: The existence of a left inverse of the interaction, an explicit representation of the error syndrome using tensor products, perfect recovery of the completely entangled state, and an information theoretic identity. Two notions of fidelity and error for imperfect recovery are introduced, one for pure and the other for entangled states. The latter is more appropriate when using codes in a quantum memory or in applications of quantum teleportation to communication. We show that the error for entangled states is bounded linearly by the error for pure states. A formal definition of independent interactions for qubits is given. This leads to lower bounds on the number of qubits required to correct e errors and a formal proof that the classical bounds on the probability of error of eerrorcorrecting codes applies to eerrorcorrecting quantum codes, provided that the interaction is dominated by an identity component.