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31
Automatic Test Generation for Maximal Diagnosis of Linear Analog Circuits
 Proc. European Design & Test Conf
, 1996
"... A faultbased multifrequency test generation and fault diagnosis procedureisproposed in this work. The procedure selects a minimal set of test measures and generates the minimal set of frequency tests which guarantee maximum fault coverage and maximal diagnosis of circuit AC hard#soft faults. The pr ..."
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A faultbased multifrequency test generation and fault diagnosis procedureisproposed in this work. The procedure selects a minimal set of test measures and generates the minimal set of frequency tests which guarantee maximum fault coverage and maximal diagnosis of circuit AC hard#soft faults. The procedure is exempli #ed for several selftestable linear analog circuits. 1 Introduction The rapid growth in the deploymentofhybrid analog #digital circuits has strengthened the need of addressing test and diagnosis issues for analog circuits. In the digital case, test and diagnosis techniques have been successfully developed and automated. This is not yet the case for analog circuits. Analog fault diagnosis has been addressed bytwo general methods: simulatebeforetest #SBT# and simulateaftertest #SAT# #1#. The former is based on the use of fault dictionaries. The latter uses measurements to compute parameters of the network or locate the faulty components. SAT approaches rely on solvi...
On Ycompatible and strict Ycompatible functions
, 1997
"... Let Y 2 IR n . A function f : IR n ! IR k Y compatible, if for any Z 2 IR n , Z Y if and only if f(Z) f(Y ) and is strict Y compatible, if for any Z 2 IR n , Z ! Y if and only if f(Z) ! f(Y ). It is proved that for any Y 2 IR n , n 2, there is no Y compatible polynomial function f ..."
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Let Y 2 IR n . A function f : IR n ! IR k Y compatible, if for any Z 2 IR n , Z Y if and only if f(Z) f(Y ) and is strict Y compatible, if for any Z 2 IR n , Z ! Y if and only if f(Z) ! f(Y ). It is proved that for any Y 2 IR n , n 2, there is no Y compatible polynomial function f : IR n ! IR k , 1 k ! n. It is also proved that for a strict Y compatible map f , J f (Y ) = 0, where J f (Y ) denote the Jacobian matrix of the mapping f in Y . These problems arose in studying data compression of analog signatures. 1 Introduction This work was initiated by the problems of storage and processing of measured response data of analog circuits normally used by the fault dictionary techniques in fault localization [1], [2]. We explore the possibility of data compression of a series of real numbers representing given response data. In particular, we are looking for some data compression function that would enable us to determine for any two given responses y 1 , y 2 , : ...
Probabilistic Graphical Models for the Diagnosis of Analog Electrical Circuits
"... Abstract. We describe an algorithm to build a graphical model—more precisely: a join tree representation of a Markov network—for a steady state analog electrical circuit. This model can be used to do probabilistic diagnosis based on manufacturer supplied information about nominal values of electrica ..."
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Abstract. We describe an algorithm to build a graphical model—more precisely: a join tree representation of a Markov network—for a steady state analog electrical circuit. This model can be used to do probabilistic diagnosis based on manufacturer supplied information about nominal values of electrical components and their tolerances as well as measurements made on the circuit. Faulty components can be identified by looking for high probabilities for values of characteristic magnitudes that deviate from the nominal values. 1
MODELING AND DIAGNOSIS OF ANALOG CIRCUITS WITH PROBABILISTIC GRAPHICAL MODELS
"... We describe an algorithm to build a graphical model—more precisely: a join tree representation of a Markov network— for a steady state analog circuit. This model can be used to do probabilistic diagnosis based on manufacturer supplied information about nominal values of electrical components and the ..."
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We describe an algorithm to build a graphical model—more precisely: a join tree representation of a Markov network— for a steady state analog circuit. This model can be used to do probabilistic diagnosis based on manufacturer supplied information about nominal values of electrical components and their tolerances as well as measurements made on the circuit. Faulty components can be identified by looking for high probabilities for values of characteristic magnitudes that deviate considerably from the nominal values. 1.
Machine Learning Algorithms for Fault Diagnosis in Analog Circuits
"... In this paper, we investigate and systematically evaluate two machine learning algorithms for analog fault detection and isolation: (1) Restricted Coloumb Energy (RCE) Neural Network, and (2) Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). The RCE and LVQ models excel at recognition and classification types of ..."
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In this paper, we investigate and systematically evaluate two machine learning algorithms for analog fault detection and isolation: (1) Restricted Coloumb Energy (RCE) Neural Network, and (2) Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). The RCE and LVQ models excel at recognition and classification types of problems. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the two learning algorithms, we have developed a software tool, termed Virtual TestBench (VTB), which generates diagnostic information for analog circuits represented by SPICE descriptions. The RCE and LVQ models render themselves more naturally to online monitoring, where measurement data from various sensors is continuously available. The effectiveness of RCE and LVQ is demonstrated on illustrative example circuits. 1 Introduction There are two main uses of testability analysis and faultdiagnosis. Firstly, it results in a set of testability figures of merit (TFOMs) and secondly, it aids in creating a robust diagnostic strategy by identifyi...
Diagnosing Analog Circuits DesignedforTestability by Using CLP(R)
, 1993
"... Recently, a designfortest (DFT) methodology for active analog filters was proposed with the primary goal in increased controllability and observability. We operationalize and extend the DFT methodology by using CLP(!) to model and diagnose analog circuits. CLP(!) is a logic programming language wi ..."
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Recently, a designfortest (DFT) methodology for active analog filters was proposed with the primary goal in increased controllability and observability. We operationalize and extend the DFT methodology by using CLP(!) to model and diagnose analog circuits. CLP(!) is a logic programming language with the capability to solve systems of linear equations and inequalities. It is well suited to model parameter tolerances and to diagnose soft faults, i.e., deviations from nominal values. The diagnostic algorithm uses different DFT test modes and voltage measurements at different frequencies to compute a set of suspected components. Ranking of suspected components is based on a measure of (normalized) standard deviations from This is an extended version of the paper that appears in the Working notes Fourth Intl. Workshop on Principles of Diagnosis, DX93, pp. 105120, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, September 68, 1993. predicted mean values of component parameters. Presented case stu...
Evaluation of i DD /v OUT CrossCorrelation for Mixed Current/Voltage Testing of Analogue and MixedSignal Circuits
, 1996
"... The use of crosscorrelation between power supply current and output voltage dynamic responses is presented as a methodology for improved mixed current /voltage testing of analogue and mixedsignal circuits. Results obtained from simulations are presented which show that better fault coverage and a ..."
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The use of crosscorrelation between power supply current and output voltage dynamic responses is presented as a methodology for improved mixed current /voltage testing of analogue and mixedsignal circuits. Results obtained from simulations are presented which show that better fault coverage and a simplification of test circuitry can be obtained, when compared with the results obtained from the direct observation of the individual signals. These advantages are important factors to develop viable new design for testability and builin self test techniques. 1 Introduction For the manufacturers of electronics products getting a product to market earlier than the competition can lead to higher profits over the product life time. Together with a reduction in throughput time in production, manufacturers are committed to improve products quality and reliability levels. Mixedsignal circuits can be divided into two broad categories which can be identified as Register Control...
On Analog Signature Analysis Franc Novak
"... We formalize the problem of analog data compression and analyze the existence of a polynomial data compression function. Under relaxed conditions we explore the existence of a solution employing digital signature analysis in the analog domain. 1 ..."
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We formalize the problem of analog data compression and analyze the existence of a polynomial data compression function. Under relaxed conditions we explore the existence of a solution employing digital signature analysis in the analog domain. 1
SUBMITTED TO IEEE TRANS. ON SIGNAL PROCESSING 1 Fault Identification via Nonparametric Belief Propagation
"... Abstract—We consider the problem of identifying a pattern of faults from a set of noisy linear measurements. Unfortunately, maximum a posteriori probability estimation of the fault pattern is computationally intractable. To solve the fault identification problem, we propose a nonparametric belief p ..."
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Abstract—We consider the problem of identifying a pattern of faults from a set of noisy linear measurements. Unfortunately, maximum a posteriori probability estimation of the fault pattern is computationally intractable. To solve the fault identification problem, we propose a nonparametric belief propagation approach. We show empirically that our belief propagation solver is more accurate than recent stateoftheart algorithms including interior point methods and semidefinite programming. Our superior performance is explained by the fact that we take into account both the binary nature of the individual faults and the sparsity of the fault pattern arising from their rarity. Index Terms—compressed sensing, fault identification, message passing, nonparametric belief propagation, stochastic approximation. I.
A Tool for Single Fault Diagnosis in Linear Analog Circuits with Tolerance Using the Tvector Approach
, 2007
"... In previous works a technique for doing single fault diagnosis in linear analog circuits was developed. Under certain conditions, one of them being exact circuit parameters, it was shown that only two measurements taken on two selected circuit nodes, at a single frequency, were needed to detect and ..."
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In previous works a technique for doing single fault diagnosis in linear analog circuits was developed. Under certain conditions, one of them being exact circuit parameters, it was shown that only two measurements taken on two selected circuit nodes, at a single frequency, were needed to detect and diagnose any parametric fault. In this paper, the practical value of the technique is evaluated by extending it to the diagnosis of faults in circuits with parameters subject to tolerance. With this in mind, single parametric faults of different strenghts are randomly injected in the circuit under study and, afterwards, these are diagnosed (or the diagnosis fails...). Results are reported on an active filter. Conclusions are drawn on the robustness and effectiveness of the technique.