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Reactive search: machine learning for memorybased heuristics
 Teofilo F. Gonzalez (Ed.), Approximation Algorithms and Metaheuristics, Taylor & Francis Books (CRC Press
, 2005
"... 1 Introduction: the role of the user in heuristics Most stateoftheart heuristics are characterized by a certain number of choices and free parameters, whose appropriate setting is a subject that raises issues of research methodology [5, 41, 51]. In some cases, these parameters are tuned through a ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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1 Introduction: the role of the user in heuristics Most stateoftheart heuristics are characterized by a certain number of choices and free parameters, whose appropriate setting is a subject that raises issues of research methodology [5, 41, 51]. In some cases, these parameters are tuned through a feedback loop that includes the user as a crucial learning component: depending on preliminary algorithm tests some parameter values are changed by the
SelfAdjusting Trees in Practice for Large Text Collections
 Software  Practice and Experience
, 2002
"... Splay and randomised search trees are selfbalancing binary tree structures with little or no space overhead compared to a standard binary search tree. Both trees are intended for use in applications where node accesses are skewed, for example in gathering the distinct words in a large text collecti ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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Splay and randomised search trees are selfbalancing binary tree structures with little or no space overhead compared to a standard binary search tree. Both trees are intended for use in applications where node accesses are skewed, for example in gathering the distinct words in a large text collection for index construction. We investigate the efficiency of these trees for such vocabulary accumulation. Surprisingly, unmodified splaying and randomised search trees are on average around 25% slower than using a standard binary tree. We investigate heuristics to limit splay tree reorganisation costs and show their effectiveness in practice. In particular, a periodic rotation scheme improves the speed of splaying by 27%, while other proposed heuristics are less effective. We also report the performance of efficient bitwise hashing and redblack trees for comparison.
Historic Integrity In Distributed Systems
, 2003
"... In an alldigital, allonline setting, longterm secure recordkeeping is a di#cult task. The recordkeeping problem comes up with increasing frequency, as we migrate to exclusively digital ways of transacting business. Accountability requires information about the content and the timing of business ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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In an alldigital, allonline setting, longterm secure recordkeeping is a di#cult task. The recordkeeping problem comes up with increasing frequency, as we migrate to exclusively digital ways of transacting business. Accountability requires information about the content and the timing of business transactions. In the digital world, ideally, we should be able to tell with conviction when a "digital event" occurred with respect to other events  such as storing a purchase receipt on a hard drive or signing a contract digitally  and we should be able to avert tampering with events that have been committed to history.
Provably Good Solutions for the Traveling Salesman Problem
, 1992
"... The determination of true optimum solutions of combinatorial optimization problems is seldomly required in practical applications. The majority of users of optimization software would be satisfied with solutions of guaranteed quality in the sense that it can be proven that the given solution is at m ..."
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Cited by 13 (6 self)
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The determination of true optimum solutions of combinatorial optimization problems is seldomly required in practical applications. The majority of users of optimization software would be satisfied with solutions of guaranteed quality in the sense that it can be proven that the given solution is at most a few percent off an optimum solution. This paper presents a general framework for practical problem solving with emphasis on this aspect. A detailed discussion along with a report about extensive computational experiments is given for the traveling salesman problem.
A practical concurrent binary search tree
 in Proceedings of the 15th ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principals and Practice of Parallel Programming
, 2010
"... We propose a concurrent relaxed balance AVL tree algorithm that is fast, scales well, and tolerates contention. It is based on optimistic techniques adapted from software transactional memory, but takes advantage of specific knowledge of the the algorithm to reduce overheads and avoid unnecessary re ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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We propose a concurrent relaxed balance AVL tree algorithm that is fast, scales well, and tolerates contention. It is based on optimistic techniques adapted from software transactional memory, but takes advantage of specific knowledge of the the algorithm to reduce overheads and avoid unnecessary retries. We extend our algorithm with a fast linearizable clone operation, which can be used for consistent iteration of the tree. Experimental evidence shows that our algorithm outperforms a highly tuned concurrent skip list for many access patterns, with an average of 39 % higher singlethreaded throughput and 32 % higher multithreaded throughput over a range of contention levels and operation mixes.
Binary Search Trees of Almost Optimal Height
 ACTA INFORMATICA
, 1990
"... First we present a generalization of symmetric binary Btrees, SBB(k) trees. The obtained structure has a height of only \Sigma (1 + 1k) log(n + 1)\Upsilon, where k may be chosen to be any positive integer. The maintenance algorithms require only a constant number of rotations per updating operati ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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First we present a generalization of symmetric binary Btrees, SBB(k) trees. The obtained structure has a height of only \Sigma (1 + 1k) log(n + 1)\Upsilon, where k may be chosen to be any positive integer. The maintenance algorithms require only a constant number of rotations per updating operation in the worst case. These properties together with the fact that the structure is relatively simple to implement makes it a useful alternative to other search trees in practical applications. Then, by using an SBB(k)tree with a varying k we achieve a structure with a logarithmic amortized cost per update and a height of log n + o(log n). This result is an improvement of the upper bound on the height of a dynamic binary search tree. By maintaining two trees simultaneously the amortized cost is transformed into a worstcase cost. Thus, we have improved the worstcase complexity of the dictionary problem.
Constructing RedBlack Trees
, 1999
"... This paper explores the structure of redblack trees by solving an apparently simple problem: given an ascending sequence of elements, construct a redblack tree which contains the elements in symmetric order. Several extreme redblack tree shapes are characterized: trees of minimum and maximum heig ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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This paper explores the structure of redblack trees by solving an apparently simple problem: given an ascending sequence of elements, construct a redblack tree which contains the elements in symmetric order. Several extreme redblack tree shapes are characterized: trees of minimum and maximum height, trees with a minimal and with a maximal proportion of red nodes. These characterizations are obtained by relating tree shapes to various number systems. In addition, connections to leftcomplete trees, AVL trees, and halfbalanced trees are highlighted. 1 Introduction Redblack trees are an elegant searchtree scheme that guarantees O(log n) worstcase running time of basic dynamicset operations. Recently, C. Okasaki (1998; 1999) presented an impressively simple functional implementation of redblack trees. In this paper we plunge deeper into the structure of redblack trees by solving an apparently simple problem: given an ascending sequence of elements, construct a redblack tree whic...
A General Technique for Implementation of Efficient Priority Queues
 In Proc. 3rd Israel Symposium on Theory of Computing and Systems
, 1994
"... This paper presents a very general technique for the implementation of mergeable priority queues. The amortized running time is O(log n) for DeleteMin and Delete, and \Theta(1) for all other standard operations. In particular, the operation DecreaseKey runs in amortized constant time. The worstca ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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This paper presents a very general technique for the implementation of mergeable priority queues. The amortized running time is O(log n) for DeleteMin and Delete, and \Theta(1) for all other standard operations. In particular, the operation DecreaseKey runs in amortized constant time. The worstcase running time is O(logn) or better for all operations. Several examples of mergeable priority queues are given. The examples include priority queues that are particular well suited for extenal storage. The space requirement is only two pointers and one information field per item. The technique is also used to implement mergeable, doubleended priority queues. For these queues, the worstcase time bound for insertion is \Theta(1), which improves the best previously known bound. For the other operations, the time bounds are the same as the best previously known bounds, worstcase as well as amortized. 1 Introduction A mergeable priority queue is one of the fundamental data types. It is used...
Persistent Triangulations
, 2001
"... Triangulations of a surface are of fundamental importance in computational geometry, computer graphics, and engineering and scientific simulations. Triangulations are ordinarily represented as mutable graph structures for which both adding and traversing edges take constant time per operation. These ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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Triangulations of a surface are of fundamental importance in computational geometry, computer graphics, and engineering and scientific simulations. Triangulations are ordinarily represented as mutable graph structures for which both adding and traversing edges take constant time per operation. These representations of triangulations make it di#cult to support persistence, including "multiple futures", the ability to use a data structure in several unrelated ways in a given computation; "time travel", the ability to move freely among versions of a data structure; or parallel computation, the ability to operate concurrently on a data structure without interference. We present a purely functional interface and representation of triangulated surfaces, and more generally of simplicial complexes in higher dimensions. In addition to being persistent in the strongest sense, the interface more closely matches the mathematical definition of triangulations (simplicial complexes) than do interfaces based on mutable representations. The representation, however, comes at the cost of requiring O(lg n) time for traversing or adding triangles (simplices), where n is the number of triangles in the surface. We show both analytically and experimentally that for certain important cases, this extra cost does not seriously a#ect endtoend running time. Analytically, we present a new randomized algorithm for 3dimensional Convex Hull based on our representations for which the running time matches the #(n lg n) lowerbound for the problem. This is achieved by using only O(n) traversals of the surface. Experimentally, we present results for both an implementation of the 3dimensional Convex Hull and for a terrain modeling algorithm, which demonstrate that, although there is some cost to persis...
Amortization Results for Chromatic Search Trees, with an Application to Priority Queues
, 1997
"... this paper, we prove that only an amortized constant amount of rebalancing is necessary after an update in a chromatic search tree. We also prove that the amount of rebalancing done at any particular level decreases exponentially, going from the leaves toward the root. These results imply that, in p ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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this paper, we prove that only an amortized constant amount of rebalancing is necessary after an update in a chromatic search tree. We also prove that the amount of rebalancing done at any particular level decreases exponentially, going from the leaves toward the root. These results imply that, in principle, a linear number of processes can access the tree simultaneously. We have included one interesting application of chromatic trees. Based on these trees, a priority queue with possibilities for a greater degree of parallelism than previous proposals can be implemented. ] 1997 Academic Press 1.