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Solution of the Robbins Problem
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1997
"... . In this article we show that the three equations known as commutativity, associativity, and the Robbins equation are a basis for the variety of Boolean algebras. The problem was posed by Herbert Robbins in the 1930s. The proof was found automatically by EQP, a theoremproving program for equationa ..."
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. In this article we show that the three equations known as commutativity, associativity, and the Robbins equation are a basis for the variety of Boolean algebras. The problem was posed by Herbert Robbins in the 1930s. The proof was found automatically by EQP, a theoremproving program for equational logic. We present the proof and the search strategies that enabled the program to find the proof. Key words: Associativecommutative unification, Boolean algebra, EQP, equational logic, paramodulation, Robbins algebra, Robbins problem. 1. Introduction This article contains the answer to the Robbins question of whether all Robbins algebras are Boolean. The answer is yes, all Robbins algebras are Boolean. The proof that answers the question was found by EQP, an automated theoremproving program for equational logic. In 1933, E. V. Huntington presented the following three equations as a basis for Boolean algebra [6, 5]: x + y = y + x, (commutativity) (x + y) + z = x + (y + z), (associativit...
The TPTP Problem Library
, 1999
"... This report provides a detailed description of the TPTP Problem Library for automated theorem proving systems. The library is available via Internet, and forms a common basis for development of and experimentation with automated theorem provers. This report provides: ffl the motivations for buildin ..."
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Cited by 100 (6 self)
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This report provides a detailed description of the TPTP Problem Library for automated theorem proving systems. The library is available via Internet, and forms a common basis for development of and experimentation with automated theorem provers. This report provides: ffl the motivations for building the library; ffl a discussion of the inadequacies of previous problem collections, and how these have been resolved in the TPTP; ffl a description of the library structure, including overview information; ffl descriptions of supplementary utility programs; ffl guidelines for obtaining and using the library; Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Previous Problem Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 What is Required? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Inside the TPTP 6 2.1 The TPTP Domain Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Otter: The CADE13 Competition Incarnations
 JOURNAL OF AUTOMATED REASONING
, 1997
"... This article discusses the two incarnations of Otter entered in the CADE13 Automated Theorem Proving Competition. Also presented are some historical background, a summary of applications that have led to new results in mathematics and logic, and a general discussion of Otter. ..."
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Cited by 44 (3 self)
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This article discusses the two incarnations of Otter entered in the CADE13 Automated Theorem Proving Competition. Also presented are some historical background, a summary of applications that have led to new results in mathematics and logic, and a general discussion of Otter.
33 Basic Test Problems: A Practical Evaluation of Some Paramodulation Strategies
, 1996
"... Introduction Many researchers who study the theoretical aspects of inference systems believe that if inference rule A is complete and more restrictive than inference rule B, then the use of A will lead more quickly to proofs than will the use of B. The literature contains statements of the sort "ou ..."
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Cited by 24 (5 self)
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Introduction Many researchers who study the theoretical aspects of inference systems believe that if inference rule A is complete and more restrictive than inference rule B, then the use of A will lead more quickly to proofs than will the use of B. The literature contains statements of the sort "our rule is complete and it heavily prunes the search space; therefore it is efficient". 2 These positions are highly questionable and indicate that the authors have little or no experience with the practical use of automated inference systems. Restrictive rules (1) can block short, easytofind proofs, (2) can block proofs involving simple clauses, the type of clause on which many practical searches focus, (3) can require weakening of redundancy control such as subsumption and demodulation, and (4) can require the use of complex checks in deciding whether such rules should be applied. The only way to determ
A Taxonomy of Parallel Strategies for Deduction
 Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence
, 1999
"... This paper presents a taxonomy of parallel theoremproving methods based on the control of search (e.g., masterslaves versus peer processes), the granularity of parallelism (e.g., fine, medium and coarse grain) and the nature of the method (e.g., orderingbased versus subgoalreduction) . We anal ..."
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Cited by 14 (1 self)
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This paper presents a taxonomy of parallel theoremproving methods based on the control of search (e.g., masterslaves versus peer processes), the granularity of parallelism (e.g., fine, medium and coarse grain) and the nature of the method (e.g., orderingbased versus subgoalreduction) . We analyze how the di#erent approaches to parallelization a#ect the control of search: while fine and mediumgrain methods, as well as masterslaves methods, generally do not modify the sequential search plan, parallelsearch methods may combine sequential search plans (multisearch) or extend the search plan with the capability of subdividing the search space (distributed search). Precisely because the search plan is modified, the latter methods may produce radically di#erent searches than their sequential base, as exemplified by the first distributed proof of the Robbins theorem generated by the Modified ClauseDi#usion prover Peersmcd. An overview of the state of the field and directions...
Handling Equality in Logic Programs via Basic Folding
 Extensions of Logic Programming (5th International Workshop, ELP'96), volume 1050 of Lecture
, 2002
"... This paper further develops an approach to logic programming with equality introduced in [DV95c]. By a logic program with equality we understand a Horn clause logic program in which equality may occur both in the heads and in the bodies of clauses. The modeltheoretic semantics of such programs is w ..."
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This paper further develops an approach to logic programming with equality introduced in [DV95c]. By a logic program with equality we understand a Horn clause logic program in which equality may occur both in the heads and in the bodies of clauses. The modeltheoretic semantics of such programs is well known for a long time [Bir44, Mal56]. However, there is no generally accepted procedural interpretation. The most natural generalization of SLDresolution known as SLDEresolution [GR89] has been proved in general incomplete in [DV95c]. Various definitions of procedural interpretations are actively studied in the theorem proving and logic programming communities
Goals and benchmarks for automated map reasoning
 Journal of Symbolic Computation
, 2000
"... TarskiGivant’s map calculus is briefly reviewed, and a plan of research is outlined aimed at investigating applications of this ground equational formalism in the theoremproving field. The main goal is to create synergy between firstorder predicate calculus and the map calculus. Techniques for tr ..."
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TarskiGivant’s map calculus is briefly reviewed, and a plan of research is outlined aimed at investigating applications of this ground equational formalism in the theoremproving field. The main goal is to create synergy between firstorder predicate calculus and the map calculus. Techniques for translating isolated sentences, as well as entire theories, from firstorder logic into map calculus are designed, or in some cases simply brought nearer through the exercise of specifying properties of a few familiar structures (natural numbers, nested lists, finite sets, lattices). It is also highlighted to what extent a stateoftheart theoremprover for firstorder logic, namely Otter, can be exploited not only to emulate, but also to reason about, map calculus. Issues regarding ’safe ’ forms of map reasoning are singled out, in sight of possible generalizations to the database area. 1
WellBehaved Search and the Robbins Problem
 8th International Conference on Rewriting Techniques and Applications (RTA), Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1997
"... Introduction The Robbins problem was solved in October 1996 [7] by the equational theorem prover EQP [6]. Although the solution was automatic in the sense that the user of the program did not know a solution, it was not a simple matter of giving the conjecture and pushing a button. The user made ma ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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Introduction The Robbins problem was solved in October 1996 [7] by the equational theorem prover EQP [6]. Although the solution was automatic in the sense that the user of the program did not know a solution, it was not a simple matter of giving the conjecture and pushing a button. The user made many computer runs, observed the output, adjusted the search parameters, and made more computer runs. The goal of this kind of iteration is to achieve a wellbehaved search. Several of the searches were successful. The purpose of this presentation is to convey some of the methods that have led to wellbehaved searches in our experiments and to speculate on automating the achievement of wellbehaved search. First, I give some background on the Robbins problem and its solution. Boolean Algebra The following set of equations, presented by E.V. Huntington in 1933 [4, 3], is a wellknown basis for Boolean algebra. x +<F10.3
Automated Equational Deduction with Otter
, 1995
"... Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Otter and MACE 3 2.1 Otter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1.1 Notes on Otter Proof Notation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 MACE : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2 Test Chapter 3 3 Lattices a ..."
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Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Otter and MACE 3 2.1 Otter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1.1 Notes on Otter Proof Notation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 MACE : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2 Test Chapter 3 3 Lattices and Latticelike Structures 9 4 The Rule (gL) 23 4.1 Problems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 23 4.2 Sample Figures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 44 5 Quasigroups 51 6 Semigroups 57 6.1 A Conjecture of Padmanabhan : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 57 7 Groups 69 7.1 SelfDual Bases for Group Theory : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 69 8 TC and RC 73 9 Problems not yet placed in the proper chapter 83 iii iv CONTENTS List