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29
Evaluating stereo and motion cues for visualizing information nets in three dimensions
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1996
"... This article concerns the benefits of presenting abstract data in 3D. Two experiments show that motion cues combined with stereo viewing can substantially increase the size of tbe graph that can be perceived. The first experiment was designed to provide quantitative measurements of how much more (or ..."
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Cited by 124 (6 self)
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This article concerns the benefits of presenting abstract data in 3D. Two experiments show that motion cues combined with stereo viewing can substantially increase the size of tbe graph that can be perceived. The first experiment was designed to provide quantitative measurements of how much more (or less) can be understood in 3D than in 2D. Tbe 3D display used was configured so that the image on the monitor was coupled to the user’s actual eye positions (and it was updated in realtime as the user moved) as well as being in stereo. Thus the effect was like a local “virtual reality ” display located in the vicinity of the computer monitor. The results from this study show that headcoupled stereo viewing can increase the size of an abstract graph that can be understood by a factor of three; using stereo alone provided an increase by a factor of 1.6 and bead coupling alone produced an increase by a factor of 2.2, Tbe second experiment examined a variety of motion cues provided by headcoupled perspective (as in virtual reality displays), handguided motion and automatic rotation, respectively, both with and without stereo in each case. The results show that structured 3D motion and stereo viewing both help in understanding, but that the kind of motion is not particularly important; all improve performance, and all are more significant than stereo cues. These results provide strong reasons for using advanced 3D graphics for interacting with a large variety of information structures.
3Dimensional Pliable Surfaces: For the Effective Presentation of Visual Information
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF UIST'95
, 1995
"... A fundamental issue in user interface design is the effective use of available screen space, commonly referred to as the screen real estate problem. This paper presents a new distortionbased viewing tool for exploring large information spaces through the use of a threedimensional pliable surface. ..."
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Cited by 51 (14 self)
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A fundamental issue in user interface design is the effective use of available screen space, commonly referred to as the screen real estate problem. This paper presents a new distortionbased viewing tool for exploring large information spaces through the use of a threedimensional pliable surface. Arbitrarilyshaped regions (foci) on the surface may be selected and pulled towards or pushed away from the viewer thereby increasing or decreasing the level of detail contained within each region. Furthermore, multiple foci are smoothly blended together such that there is no loss of context. The manipulation and blending of foci is accomplished using a fairly simple mathematical model based on gaussian curves. The significance of this approach is that it utilizes precognitive perceptual cues about the threedimensional surface to make the distortions comprehensible, and allows the user to interactively control the location, shape, and extent of the distortion in very large graphs or maps.
Interacting with Huge Hierarchies: Beyond Cone Trees
 Proc. IEEE Information Visualization '95, IEEE Computer Press, Los Alamitos, CA
, 1995
"... This paper describes an implementation of a tool for visualizing and interacting with huge information hierarchies. Existing systems for visualizing huge hierarchies using cone trees "break down" once the hierarchy to be displayed exceeds roughly 1000 nodes, due to increasing visual clutter. This pa ..."
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Cited by 28 (1 self)
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This paper describes an implementation of a tool for visualizing and interacting with huge information hierarchies. Existing systems for visualizing huge hierarchies using cone trees "break down" once the hierarchy to be displayed exceeds roughly 1000 nodes, due to increasing visual clutter. This paper describes a system called fsviz which visualizes arbitrarily large hierarchies while retaining user control. This is accomplished by augmenting cone trees with several graphical and interaction techniques: usagebased filtering, animated zooming, handcoupled rotation, fisheye zooming, coalescing of nodes, texturing, effective use of colour for depth cueing, and the applications of dynamic queries. The fsviz system also improves upon earlier cone tree visualization systems through a more elaborate node layout algorithm. This algorithm enhances the usefulness of cone tree visualization for large hierarchies by all but eliminating clutter. Keywords: Information Visualization, Information ...
A Fast MultiDimensional Algorithm for Drawing Large Graphs
 In Graph Drawing’00 Conference Proceedings
, 2000
"... We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or three dimensi ..."
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Cited by 28 (4 self)
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We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or three dimensional subspace of E. Projecting highdimensional drawings onto two or three dimensions often results in drawings that are "smoother" and more symmetric. Among the other notable features of our approach are the utilization of a maximal independent set filtration of the set of vertices of a graph, a fast energy function minimization strategy, e#cient memory management, and an intelligent initial placement of vertices. Our implementation of the algorithm can draw graphs with tens of thousands of vertices using a negligible amount of memory in less than one minute on a midrange PC. 1 Introduction Graphs are common in many applications, from data structures to networks, from software engineering...
Pathwidth and ThreeDimensional StraightLine Grid Drawings of Graphs
"... We prove that every nvertex graph G with pathwidth pw(G) has a threedimensional straightline grid drawing with O(pw(G) n) volume. Thus for ..."
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Cited by 24 (12 self)
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We prove that every nvertex graph G with pathwidth pw(G) has a threedimensional straightline grid drawing with O(pw(G) n) volume. Thus for
Three Dimensional UML using Force Directed Layout
, 2001
"... The Unified Modelling Language (UML) is a visual language for modelling software designs and is currently the most widely accepted standard for software diagrams in the software engineering field. Force Directed Layout algorithms are methods for arranging the elements of a graph in an aesthetically ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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The Unified Modelling Language (UML) is a visual language for modelling software designs and is currently the most widely accepted standard for software diagrams in the software engineering field. Force Directed Layout algorithms are methods for arranging the elements of a graph in an aesthetically pleasing and clear manner.
GIOTTO3D: A System for Visualizing Hierarchical Structures in 3D
 Proceedings of Graph Drawing ’96), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1190
, 1997
"... Hierarchical structures represented by directed acyclic graphs are widely used in visualization applications (e.g., class inheritance diagrams and scheduling diagrams). 3D information visualization has received increasing attention in the last few years, motivated by the advances in hardware and ..."
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Cited by 18 (1 self)
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Hierarchical structures represented by directed acyclic graphs are widely used in visualization applications (e.g., class inheritance diagrams and scheduling diagrams). 3D information visualization has received increasing attention in the last few years, motivated by the advances in hardware and software technology for 3D computer graphics.
A Cognitive Framework For Describing And Evaluating Software Exploration Tools
, 1998
"... Software programs, especially legacy programs, are often large, complex and poorly documented. To maintain these programs software engineers require a variety of efficient analytical tools. Some software maintenance tools use visualizations (i.e. graphical views) to communicate information about sof ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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Software programs, especially legacy programs, are often large, complex and poorly documented. To maintain these programs software engineers require a variety of efficient analytical tools. Some software maintenance tools use visualizations (i.e. graphical views) to communicate information about software systems. Although many software visualization tools exist, the majority of them are not very effective in practice. Part of the problem is that they are designed in an ad hoc manner, with little empirical evaluation. They are often criticized because they try to force programmers to use a specific approach to understanding software rather than supporting their own approaches. The result is that current software visualization tools do not play as big a role in industry as was anticipated by some researchers. The tools that are used are very basic, consisting of mainly text editors and searching features. With increasingly fast computing platforms, there is great potential for the use of...
MultiDimensional Orthogonal Graph Drawing with Small Boxes
 Proc. 7th International Symp. on Graph Drawing (GD '99
, 1999
"... In this paper we investigate the general position model for the drawing of arbitrary degree graphs in the Ddimensional (D >= 2) orthogonal grid. In this model no two vertices lie in the same grid hyperplane. ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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In this paper we investigate the general position model for the drawing of arbitrary degree graphs in the Ddimensional (D >= 2) orthogonal grid. In this model no two vertices lie in the same grid hyperplane.
A New Algorithm and Open Problems in ThreeDimensional Orthogonal Graph Drawing
 Curtin University of Technology
, 1999
"... . In this paper we present an algorithm for 3D orthogonal drawing of arbitrary degree nvertex medge multigraphs with O(m 2 = p n) bounding box volume and 6 bends per edge route. This is the smallest known bound on the bounding box volume of 3D orthogonal multigraph drawings. We continue ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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. In this paper we present an algorithm for 3D orthogonal drawing of arbitrary degree nvertex medge multigraphs with O(m 2 = p n) bounding box volume and 6 bends per edge route. This is the smallest known bound on the bounding box volume of 3D orthogonal multigraph drawings. We continue the study of the tradeoff between bounding box volume and the number of bends in orthogonal graph drawings through a refined algorithm with O(m 2 ) bounding box volume and 5 bends per edge route. Many open problems in 3D orthogonal graph drawing are presented and potential avenues for their solution are discussed. 1 Introduction With applications including VLSI circuit design [4, 18, 20] and software engineering [14, 19, 23], there has been recent interest in 3D graph visualization. Proposed models include straightline drawings [6, 13, 16] and of interest in this paper orthogonal drawings [1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 17, 25, 26, 27, 28]. The 3D orthogonal grid consists of grid po...