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Dynamic and efficient key management for access hierarchies
 In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security
, 2005
"... Hierarchies arise in the context of access control whenever the user population can be modeled as a set of partially ordered classes (represented as a directed graph). A user with access privileges for a class obtains access to objects stored at that class and all descendant classes in the hierarchy ..."
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Cited by 64 (8 self)
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Hierarchies arise in the context of access control whenever the user population can be modeled as a set of partially ordered classes (represented as a directed graph). A user with access privileges for a class obtains access to objects stored at that class and all descendant classes in the hierarchy. The problem of key management for such hierarchies then consists of assigning a key to each class in the hierarchy so that keys for descendant classes can be obtained via efficient key derivation. We propose a solution to this problem with the following properties: (1) the space complexity of the public information is the same as that of storing the hierarchy; (2) the private information at a class consists of a single key associated with that class; (3) updates (i.e., revocations and additions) are handled locally in the hierarchy; (4) the scheme is provably secure against collusion; and (5) each node can derive the key of any of its descendant with a number of symmetrickey operations bounded by the length of the path between the nodes. Whereas many previous schemes had some of these properties, ours is the first that satisfies all of them. The security of our scheme is based on pseudorandom functions, without reliance on the Random Oracle Model. 18 Portions of this work were supported by Grants IIS0325345 and CNS06274488 from the
Convex drawings of Planar Graphs and the Order Dimension of 3Polytopes
 ORDER
, 2000
"... We define an analogue of Schnyder's tree decompositions for 3connected planar graphs. Based on this structure we obtain: Let G be a 3connected planar graph with f faces, then G has a convex drawing with its vertices embedded on the (f 1) (f 1) grid. Let G be a 3connected planar graph. The d ..."
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Cited by 34 (14 self)
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We define an analogue of Schnyder's tree decompositions for 3connected planar graphs. Based on this structure we obtain: Let G be a 3connected planar graph with f faces, then G has a convex drawing with its vertices embedded on the (f 1) (f 1) grid. Let G be a 3connected planar graph. The dimension of the incidence order of vertices, edges and bounded faces of G is at most 3. The second result is originally due to Brightwell and Trotter. Here we give a substantially simpler proof.
Simultaneous embedding of planar graphs with few bends
 In 12th Symposium on Graph Drawing (GD
, 2004
"... We consider several variations of the simultaneous embedding problem for planar graphs. We begin with a simple proof that not all pairs of planar graphs have simultaneous geometric embedding. However, using bends, pairs of planar graphs can be simultaneously embedded on the O(n 2) × O(n 2) grid, wit ..."
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Cited by 26 (6 self)
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We consider several variations of the simultaneous embedding problem for planar graphs. We begin with a simple proof that not all pairs of planar graphs have simultaneous geometric embedding. However, using bends, pairs of planar graphs can be simultaneously embedded on the O(n 2) × O(n 2) grid, with at most three bends per edge, where n is the number of vertices. The O(n) time algorithm guarantees that two corresponding vertices in the graphs are mapped to the same location in the final drawing and that both the drawings are crossingfree. The special case when both input graphs are trees has several applications, such as contour tree simplification and evolutionary biology. We show that if both the input graphs are are trees, only one bend per edge is required. The O(n) time algorithm guarantees that both drawings are crossingsfree, corresponding tree vertices are mapped to the same locations, and all vertices (and bends) are on the O(n 2) × O(n 2) grid (O(n 3) × O(n 3) grid). For the special case when one of the graphs is a tree and the other is a path we can find simultaneous embedding with fixededges. That is, we can guarantee that corresponding vertices are mapped to the same locations and that corresponding edges are drawn the same way. We describe an O(n) time algorithm for simultaneous embedding with fixededges for treepath pairs with at most one bend per treeedge and no bends along path edges, such that all vertices (and bends) are on the O(n) × O(n 2) grid, (O(n 2) × O(n 3) grid).
Pathwidth and ThreeDimensional StraightLine Grid Drawings of Graphs
"... We prove that every nvertex graph G with pathwidth pw(G) has a threedimensional straightline grid drawing with O(pw(G) n) volume. Thus for ..."
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Cited by 24 (12 self)
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We prove that every nvertex graph G with pathwidth pw(G) has a threedimensional straightline grid drawing with O(pw(G) n) volume. Thus for
Lattice Structures from Planar Graphs
 Elec. J. Comb
, 2004
"... The set of all orientations of a planar graph with prescribed outdegrees carries the structure of a distributive lattice. This general theorem is proven in the first part of the paper. In the second part the theorem is applied to show that interesting combinatorial sets related to a planar graph hav ..."
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Cited by 22 (6 self)
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The set of all orientations of a planar graph with prescribed outdegrees carries the structure of a distributive lattice. This general theorem is proven in the first part of the paper. In the second part the theorem is applied to show that interesting combinatorial sets related to a planar graph have lattice structure: Eulerian orientations, spanning trees and Schnyder woods. For the Schnyder wood application some additional theory has to be developed. In particular it is shown that a Schnyder wood for a planar graph induces a Schnyder wood for the dual.
KEY MANAGEMENT FOR NONTREE ACCESS HIERARCHIES
, 2006
"... Access hierarchies are useful in many applications and are modeled as a set of access classes organized by a partial order. A user who obtains access to a class in such a hierarchy is entitled to access objects stored at that class, as well as objects stored at its descendant classes. Efficient sche ..."
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Cited by 16 (7 self)
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Access hierarchies are useful in many applications and are modeled as a set of access classes organized by a partial order. A user who obtains access to a class in such a hierarchy is entitled to access objects stored at that class, as well as objects stored at its descendant classes. Efficient schemes for this framework assign only one key to a class and use key derivation to permit access to descendant classes. Ideally, the key derivation uses simple primitives such as cryptographic hash computations and modular additions. A straightforward key derivation time is then linear in the length of the path between the user’s class and the class of the object that the user wants to access. Recently, work presented in [2] has given an efficient solution that significantly lowers this key derivation time, while
Transversal structures on triangulations, combinatorial study and straightline drawing
, 2007
"... This article focuses on a combinatorial structure specific to triangulated plane graphs with quadrangular outer face and no separating triangle, called irreducible triangulations. The structure has been introduced by Xin He under the name of regular edgelabelling and consists of two transversal bip ..."
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Cited by 14 (4 self)
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This article focuses on a combinatorial structure specific to triangulated plane graphs with quadrangular outer face and no separating triangle, called irreducible triangulations. The structure has been introduced by Xin He under the name of regular edgelabelling and consists of two transversal bipolar orientations. For this reason, the terminology used here is that of transversal structures. The main results obtained in the article are a bijection between irreducible triangulations and ternary trees, and a straightline drawing algorithm for irreducible triangulations. For a random irreducible triangulation with n vertices, the grid size of the drawing is asymptotically with high probability 11n/27 × 11n/27 up to an additive error of O ( √ n). In contrast, the best previously known algorithm for these triangulations only guarantees a grid size (⌈n/2 ⌉ − 1) × ⌊n/2⌋.
Compact floorplanning via orderly spanning trees
 Journal of Algorithms
"... Floorplanning is a fundamental step in VLSI chip design. Based upon the concept of orderly spanning trees, we present a simple O(n)time algorithm to construct a floorplan for any nnode plane triangulation. In comparison with previous floorplanning algorithms in the literature, our solution is no ..."
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Cited by 14 (1 self)
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Floorplanning is a fundamental step in VLSI chip design. Based upon the concept of orderly spanning trees, we present a simple O(n)time algorithm to construct a floorplan for any nnode plane triangulation. In comparison with previous floorplanning algorithms in the literature, our solution is not only simpler in the algorithm itself, but also produces floorplans which require fewer module types. An equally important aspect of our new algorithm lies in its ability to fit the floorplan area in a rectangle of size (n − 1) × ⌊ ⌋
The order dimension of planar maps
 SIAM J. DISCRETE MATH
, 1997
"... This is a sequel to a previous paper entitled The Order Dimension of Convex Polytopes, by the same authors [SIAM J. Discrete Math., 6 (1993), pp. 230–245]. In that paper, we considered the poset PM formed by taking the vertices, edges, and faces of a 3connected planar map M, ordered by inclusion, ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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This is a sequel to a previous paper entitled The Order Dimension of Convex Polytopes, by the same authors [SIAM J. Discrete Math., 6 (1993), pp. 230–245]. In that paper, we considered the poset PM formed by taking the vertices, edges, and faces of a 3connected planar map M, ordered by inclusion, and showed that the order dimension of PM is always equal to 4. In this paper, we show that if M is any planar map, then the order dimension of PM is still at most 4.
Queue layouts, treewidth, and threedimensional graph drawing
 Proc. 22nd Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FST TCS '02
, 2002
"... Abstract. A threedimensional (straightline grid) drawing of a graph represents the vertices by points in Z 3 and the edges by noncrossing line segments. This research is motivated by the following open problem due to Felsner, Liotta, and Wismath [Graph Drawing ’01, Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci., ..."
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Cited by 12 (6 self)
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Abstract. A threedimensional (straightline grid) drawing of a graph represents the vertices by points in Z 3 and the edges by noncrossing line segments. This research is motivated by the following open problem due to Felsner, Liotta, and Wismath [Graph Drawing ’01, Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci., 2002]: does every nvertex planar graph have a threedimensional drawing with O(n) volume? We prove that this question is almost equivalent to an existing onedimensional graph layout problem. A queue layout consists of a linear order σ of the vertices of a graph, and a partition of the edges into queues, such that no two edges in the same queue are nested with respect to σ. The minimum number of queues in a queue layout of a graph is its queuenumber. Let G be an nvertex member of a proper minorclosed family of graphs (such as a planar graph). We prove that G has a O(1) × O(1) × O(n) drawing if and only if G has O(1) queuenumber. Thus the above question is almost equivalent to an open problem of Heath, Leighton, and Rosenberg [SIAM J. Discrete Math., 1992], who ask whether every planar graph has O(1) queuenumber? We also present partial solutions to an open problem of Ganley and Heath [Discrete Appl. Math., 2001], who ask whether graphs of bounded treewidth have bounded queuenumber? We prove that graphs with bounded pathwidth, or both bounded treewidth and bounded maximum degree, have bounded queuenumber. As a corollary we obtain threedimensional drawings with optimal O(n) volume, for seriesparallel graphs, and graphs with both bounded treewidth and bounded maximum degree. 1