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Some lambda calculus and type theory formalized
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1999
"... Abstract. We survey a substantial body of knowledge about lambda calculus and Pure Type Systems, formally developed in a constructive type theory using the LEGO proof system. On lambda calculus, we work up to an abstract, simplified, proof of standardization for beta reduction, that does not mention ..."
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Cited by 52 (7 self)
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Abstract. We survey a substantial body of knowledge about lambda calculus and Pure Type Systems, formally developed in a constructive type theory using the LEGO proof system. On lambda calculus, we work up to an abstract, simplified, proof of standardization for beta reduction, that does not mention redex positions or residuals. Then we outline the meta theory of Pure Type Systems, leading to the strengthening lemma. One novelty is our use of named variables for the formalization. Along the way we point out what we feel has been learned about general issues of formalizing mathematics, emphasizing the search for formal definitions that are convenient for formal proof and convincingly represent the intended informal concepts.
Syntax and Semantics of Dependent Types
 Semantics and Logics of Computation
, 1997
"... ion is written as [x: oe]M instead of x: oe:M and application is written M(N) instead of App [x:oe] (M; N ). 1 Iterated abstractions and applications are written [x 1 : oe 1 ; : : : ; x n : oe n ]M and M(N 1 ; : : : ; N n ), respectively. The lacking type information can be inferred. The universe ..."
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Cited by 40 (4 self)
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ion is written as [x: oe]M instead of x: oe:M and application is written M(N) instead of App [x:oe] (M; N ). 1 Iterated abstractions and applications are written [x 1 : oe 1 ; : : : ; x n : oe n ]M and M(N 1 ; : : : ; N n ), respectively. The lacking type information can be inferred. The universe is written Set instead of U . The Eloperator is omitted. For example the \Pitype is described by the following constant and equality declarations (understood in every valid context): ` \Pi : (oe: Set; : (oe)Set)Set ` App : (oe: Set; : (oe)Set; m: \Pi(oe; ); n: oe) (m) ` : (oe: Set; : (oe)Set; m: (x: oe) (x))\Pi(oe; ) oe: Set; : (oe)Set; m: (x: oe) (x); n: oe ` App(oe; ; (oe; ; m); n) = m(n) Notice, how terms with free variables are represented as framework abstractions (in the type of ) and how substitution is represented as framework application (in the type of App and in the equation). In this way the burden of dealing correctly with variables, substitution, and binding is s...
Equilogical Spaces
, 1998
"... It is well known that one can build models of full higherorder dependent type theory (also called the calculus of constructions) using partial equivalence relations (PERs) and assemblies over a partial combinatory algebra (PCA). But the idea of categories of PERs and ERs (total equivalence relation ..."
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Cited by 31 (12 self)
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It is well known that one can build models of full higherorder dependent type theory (also called the calculus of constructions) using partial equivalence relations (PERs) and assemblies over a partial combinatory algebra (PCA). But the idea of categories of PERs and ERs (total equivalence relations) can be applied to other structures as well. In particular, we can easily dene the category of ERs and equivalencepreserving continuous mappings over the standard category Top 0 of topological T 0 spaces; we call these spaces (a topological space together with an ER) equilogical spaces and the resulting category Equ. We show that this categoryin contradistinction to Top 0 is a cartesian closed category. The direct proof outlined here uses the equivalence of the category Equ to the category PEqu of PERs over algebraic lattices (a full subcategory of Top 0 that is well known to be cartesian closed from domain theory). In another paper with Carboni and Rosolini (cited herein) a more abstract categorical generalization shows why many such categories are cartesian closed. The category Equ obviously contains Top 0 as a full subcategory, and it naturally contains many other well known subcategories. In particular, we show why, as a consequence of work of Ershov, Berger, and others, the KleeneKreisel hierarchy of countable functionals of nite types can be naturally constructed in Equ from the natural numbers object N by repeated use in Equ of exponentiation and binary products. We also develop for Equ notions of modest sets (a category equivalent to Equ) and assemblies to explain why a model of dependent type theory is obtained. We make some comparisons of this model to other, known models. 1
Developing Theories of Types and Computability via Realizability
, 2000
"... We investigate the development of theories of types and computability via realizability. ..."
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Cited by 20 (6 self)
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We investigate the development of theories of types and computability via realizability.
A Uniform Approach to Domain Theory in Realizability Models
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1996
"... this paper we provide a uniform approach to modelling them in categories of modest sets. To do this, we identify appropriate structure for doing "domain theory" in such "realizability models". In Sections 2 and 3 we introduce PCAs and define the associated "realizability" categories of assemblies an ..."
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Cited by 20 (6 self)
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this paper we provide a uniform approach to modelling them in categories of modest sets. To do this, we identify appropriate structure for doing "domain theory" in such "realizability models". In Sections 2 and 3 we introduce PCAs and define the associated "realizability" categories of assemblies and modest sets. Next, in Section 4, we prepare for our development of domain theory with an analysis of nontermination. Previous approaches have used (relatively complicated) categorical formulations of partial maps for this purpose. Instead, motivated by the idea that A provides a primitive programming language, we consider a simple notion of "diverging" computation within A itself. This leads to a theory of divergences from which a notion of (computable) partial function is derived together with a lift monad classifying partial functions. The next task is to isolate a subcategory of modest sets with sufficient structure for supporting analogues of the usual domaintheoretic constructions. First, we expect to be able to interpret the standard constructions of total type theory in this category, so it should inherit cartesianclosure, coproducts and the natural numbers from modest sets. Second, it should interact well with the notion of partiality, so it should be closed under application of the lift functor. Third, it should allow the recursive definition of partial functions. This is achieved by obtaining a fixpoint object in the category, as defined in (Crole and Pitts 1992). Finally, although there is in principle no definitive list of requirements on such a category, one would like it to support more complicated constructions such as those required to interpret polymorphic and recursive types. The central part of the paper (Sections 5, 6, 7 and 9) is devoted to establish...
Computational Adequacy in an Elementary Topos
 Proceedings CSL ’98, Springer LNCS 1584
, 1999
"... . We place simple axioms on an elementary topos which suffice for it to provide a denotational model of callbyvalue PCF with sum and product types. The model is synthetic in the sense that types are interpreted by their settheoretic counterparts within the topos. The main result characterises whe ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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. We place simple axioms on an elementary topos which suffice for it to provide a denotational model of callbyvalue PCF with sum and product types. The model is synthetic in the sense that types are interpreted by their settheoretic counterparts within the topos. The main result characterises when the model is computationally adequate with respect to the operational semantics of the programming language. We prove that computational adequacy holds if and only if the topos is 1consistent (i.e. its internal logic validates only true \Sigma 0 1 sentences). 1 Introduction One axiomatic approach to domain theory is based on axiomatizing properties of the category of predomains (in which objects need not have a "least" element). Typically, such a category is assumed to be bicartesian closed (although it is not really necessary to require all exponentials) with natural numbers object, allowing the denotations of simple datatypes to be determined by universal properties. It is well known...
Axioms and (Counter)examples in Synthetic Domain Theory
 Annals of Pure and Applied Logic
, 1998
"... this paper we adopt the most popular choice, the internal logic of an elementary topos (with nno), also chosen, e.g., in [23, 8, 26]. The principal benefits are that models of the logic (toposes) are ubiquitous, and the methods for constructing and analysing them are very wellestablished. For the p ..."
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Cited by 8 (7 self)
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this paper we adopt the most popular choice, the internal logic of an elementary topos (with nno), also chosen, e.g., in [23, 8, 26]. The principal benefits are that models of the logic (toposes) are ubiquitous, and the methods for constructing and analysing them are very wellestablished. For the purposes of the axiomatic part of this paper, we believe that it would also be
Synthetic Domain Theory in Type Theory: Another Logic of Computable Functions
 In Proceedings of TPHOL
, 1996
"... Abstract. We will present a Logic of Computable Functions based on the idea of Synthetic Domain Theory such that all functions are automatically continuous. Its implementation in the Lego proofchecker – the logic is formalized on top of the Extended Calculus of Constructions – has two main advantag ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Abstract. We will present a Logic of Computable Functions based on the idea of Synthetic Domain Theory such that all functions are automatically continuous. Its implementation in the Lego proofchecker – the logic is formalized on top of the Extended Calculus of Constructions – has two main advantages. First, one gets machine checked proofs verifying that the chosen logical presentation of Synthetic Domain Theory is correct. Second, it gives rise to a LCFlike theory for verification of functional programs where continuity proofs are obsolete. Because of the powerful type theory even modular programs and specifications can be coded such that one gets a prototype setting for modular software verification and development. 1
Inductive Construction of Repletion
 Appl. Categ. Structures
, 1997
"... Introduction In [2] Martin Hyland has proposed the notion of "Sreplete object" relative to a given object S as the appropriate generalisation of predomain for the purposes of Synthetic Domain Theory (SDT). The aim of SDT is to provide a constructive logical framework for reasoning about domains an ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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Introduction In [2] Martin Hyland has proposed the notion of "Sreplete object" relative to a given object S as the appropriate generalisation of predomain for the purposes of Synthetic Domain Theory (SDT). The aim of SDT is to provide a constructive logical framework for reasoning about domains and thus about meanings of functional programs where all functions between predomains are continuous and all endofunctions on domains have least fixpoints. Furthermore, SDT allows one to consider predomains as a full reflective subcategory of the ambient category of constructive sets. For this reason the ambient category is assumed to be a model of some sufficiently strong impredicative constructive type theory which will be used as the internal language for the ambient category of constructive sets in order to replace complicated external arguments by simpler proofs in the