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138
Notions of Computation and Monads
, 1991
"... The i.calculus is considered a useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with Iterms. However, if one goes further and uses bnconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification is introduced (programs are identified with ..."
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Cited by 730 (15 self)
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The i.calculus is considered a useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with Iterms. However, if one goes further and uses bnconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification is introduced (programs are identified with total functions from calues to values) that may jeopardise the applicability of theoretical results, In this paper we introduce calculi. based on a categorical semantics for computations, that provide a correct basis for proving equivalence of programs for a wide range of notions of computation.
Comprehending Monads
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1992
"... Category theorists invented monads in the 1960's to concisely express certain aspects of universal algebra. Functional programmers invented list comprehensions in the 1970's to concisely express certain programs involving lists. This paper shows how list comprehensions may be generalised to an arbit ..."
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Cited by 456 (13 self)
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Category theorists invented monads in the 1960's to concisely express certain aspects of universal algebra. Functional programmers invented list comprehensions in the 1970's to concisely express certain programs involving lists. This paper shows how list comprehensions may be generalised to an arbitrary monad, and how the resulting programming feature can concisely express in a pure functional language some programs that manipulate state, handle exceptions, parse text, or invoke continuations. A new solution to the old problem of destructive array update is also presented. No knowledge of category theory is assumed.
Computational LambdaCalculus and Monads
, 1988
"... The calculus is considered an useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with terms. However, if one goes further and uses fijconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification 1 is introduced, that may jeopardise the ..."
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Cited by 439 (6 self)
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The calculus is considered an useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with terms. However, if one goes further and uses fijconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification 1 is introduced, that may jeopardise the applicability of theoretical results to real situations. In this paper we introduce a new calculus based on a categorical semantics for computations. This calculus provides a correct basis for proving equivalence of programs, independent from any specific computational model. 1 Introduction This paper is about logics for reasoning about programs, in particular for proving equivalence of programs. Following a consolidated tradition in theoretical computer science we identify programs with the closed terms, possibly containing extra constants, corresponding to some features of the programming language under consideration. There are three approaches to proving equivalence of programs: ffl T...
The Craft of Functional Programming
, 1999
"... Abstract. Refactoring is the process of improving the design of existing programs without changing their functionality. These notes cover refactoring in functional languages, using Haskell as the medium, and introducing the HaRe tool for refactoring in Haskell. 1 ..."
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Cited by 92 (4 self)
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Abstract. Refactoring is the process of improving the design of existing programs without changing their functionality. These notes cover refactoring in functional languages, using Haskell as the medium, and introducing the HaRe tool for refactoring in Haskell. 1
Stack Inspection: Theory and Variants
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 2001
"... Stack inspection is a security mechanism implemented in runtimes such as the JVM and the CLR to accommodate components with diverse levels of trust. Although stack inspection enables the finegrained expression of access control policies, it has rather a complex and subtle semantics. We present a ..."
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Cited by 90 (4 self)
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Stack inspection is a security mechanism implemented in runtimes such as the JVM and the CLR to accommodate components with diverse levels of trust. Although stack inspection enables the finegrained expression of access control policies, it has rather a complex and subtle semantics. We present a formal semantics and an equational theory to explain how stack inspection a#ects program behaviour and code optimisations. We discuss the security properties enforced by stack inspection, and also consider variants with stronger, simpler properties.
From operational semantics to abstract machines
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1992
"... We consider the problem of mechanically constructing abstract machines from operational semantics, producing intermediatelevel specifications of evaluators guaranteed to be correct with respect to the operational semantics. We construct these machines by repeatedly applying correctnesspreserving t ..."
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Cited by 59 (6 self)
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We consider the problem of mechanically constructing abstract machines from operational semantics, producing intermediatelevel specifications of evaluators guaranteed to be correct with respect to the operational semantics. We construct these machines by repeatedly applying correctnesspreserving transformations to operational semantics until the resulting specifications have the form of abstract machines. Though not automatable in general, this approach to constructing machine implementations can be mechanized, providing machineverified correctness proofs. As examples we present the transformation of specifications for both callbyname and callbyvalue evaluation of the untyped λcalculus into abstract machines that implement such evaluation strategies. We also present extensions to the callbyvalue machine for a language containing constructs for recursion, conditionals, concrete data types, and builtin functions. In all cases, the correctness of the derived abstract machines follows from the (generally transparent) correctness of the initial operational semantic specification and the correctness of the transformations applied. 1.
A lambda calculus for quantum computation
 SIAM Journal of Computing
"... The classical lambda calculus may be regarded both as a programming language and as a formal algebraic system for reasoning about computation. It provides a computational model equivalent to the Turing machine, and continues to be of enormous benefit in the classical theory of computation. We propos ..."
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Cited by 49 (1 self)
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The classical lambda calculus may be regarded both as a programming language and as a formal algebraic system for reasoning about computation. It provides a computational model equivalent to the Turing machine, and continues to be of enormous benefit in the classical theory of computation. We propose that quantum computation, like its classical counterpart, may benefit from a version of the lambda calculus suitable for expressing and reasoning about quantum algorithms. In this paper we develop a quantum lambda calculus as an alternative model of quantum computation, which combines some of the benefits of both the quantum Turing machine and the quantum circuit models. The calculus turns out to be closely related to the linear lambda calculi used in the study of Linear Logic. We set up a computational model and an equational proof system for this calculus, and we argue that it is equivalent to the quantum Turing machine.
Static caching for incremental computation
 ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst
, 1998
"... A systematic approach is given for deriving incremental programs that exploit caching. The cacheandprune method presented in the article consists of three stages: (I) the original program is extended to cache the results of all its intermediate subcomputations as well as the nal result, (II) the e ..."
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Cited by 47 (19 self)
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A systematic approach is given for deriving incremental programs that exploit caching. The cacheandprune method presented in the article consists of three stages: (I) the original program is extended to cache the results of all its intermediate subcomputations as well as the nal result, (II) the extended program is incrementalized so that computation on a new input can use all intermediate results on an old input, and (III) unused results cached by the extended program and maintained by the incremental program are pruned away, l e a ving a pruned extended program that caches only useful intermediate results and a pruned incremental program that uses and maintains only the useful results. All three stages utilize static analyses and semanticspreserving transformations. Stages I and III are simple, clean, and fully automatable. The overall method has a kind of optimality with respect to the techniques used in Stage II. The method can be applied straightforwardly to provide a systematic approach to program improvement via caching.
Modeling an algebraic stepper
 Proceedings of the 10th European Symposium on Programming, volume 2028 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2001
"... Abstract. Programmers rely on the correctness of the tools in their programming environments. In the past, semanticists have studied the correctness of compilers and compiler analyses, which are the most important tools. In this paper, we make the case that other tools, such as debuggers and stepper ..."
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Cited by 43 (17 self)
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Abstract. Programmers rely on the correctness of the tools in their programming environments. In the past, semanticists have studied the correctness of compilers and compiler analyses, which are the most important tools. In this paper, we make the case that other tools, such as debuggers and steppers, deserve semantic models, too, and that using these models can help in developing these tools. Our concrete starting point is the algebraic stepper in DrScheme, our Scheme programming environment. The algebraic stepper explains a Scheme computation in terms of an algebraic rewriting of the program text. A program is rewritten until it is in a canonical form (if it has one). The canonical form is the final result. The stepper operates within the existing evaluator, by placing breakpoints and by reconstructing source expressions from source information placed on the stack. This approach raises two questions. First, do the runtime breakpoints correspond to the steps of the reduction semantics? Second, does the debugging mechanism insert enough information to reconstruct source expressions? To answer these questions, we develop a highlevel semantic model of the extended compiler and runtime machinery. Rather than modeling the evaluation as a lowlevel machine, we model the relevant lowlevel features of the stepper’s implementation in a highlevel reduction semantics. We expect the approach to apply to other semanticsbased tools. 1 The Correctness of Programming Environment Tools Programming environments provide many tools that process programs semantically. The most common ones are compilers, program analysis tools, debuggers, and profilers. Our DrScheme programming environment [9,8] also provides an algebraic stepper for Scheme. It explains a program’s execution as a sequence of reduction steps based on the ordinary laws of algebra for the functional core [2,
Categorical Models for Local Names
 LISP AND SYMBOLIC COMPUTATION
, 1996
"... This paper describes the construction of categorical models for the nucalculus, a language that combines higherorder functions with dynamically created names. Names are created with local scope, they can be compared with each other and passed around through function application, but that is all. T ..."
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Cited by 39 (2 self)
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This paper describes the construction of categorical models for the nucalculus, a language that combines higherorder functions with dynamically created names. Names are created with local scope, they can be compared with each other and passed around through function application, but that is all. The intent behind this language is to examine one aspect of the imperative character of Standard ML: the use of local state by dynamic creation of references. The nucalculus is equivalent to a certain fragment of ML, omitting side effects, exceptions, datatypes and recursion. Even without all these features, the interaction of name creation with higherorder functions can be complex and subtle; it is particularly difficult to characterise the observable behaviour of expressions. Categorical monads, in the style of Moggi, are used to build denotational models for the nucalculus. An intermediate stage is the use of a computational metalanguage, which distinguishes in the type system between values and computations. The general requirements for a categorical model are presented, and two specific examples described in detail. These provide a sound denotational semantics for the nucalculus, and can be used to reason about observable equivalence in the language. In particular a model using logical relations is fully abstract for firstorder expressions.