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222
Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises
 Review of General Psychology
, 1998
"... Confirmation bias, as the term is typically used in the psychological literature, connotes the seeking or interpreting of evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis in hand. The author reviews evidence of such a bias in a variety of guises and gives examples ..."
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Cited by 242 (0 self)
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Confirmation bias, as the term is typically used in the psychological literature, connotes the seeking or interpreting of evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis in hand. The author reviews evidence of such a bias in a variety of guises and gives examples of its operation in several practical contexts. Possible explanations are considered, and the question of its utility or disutility is discussed. When men wish to construct or support a theory, how they torture facts into their service! (Mackay, 1852/ 1932, p. 552) Confirmation bias is perhaps the best known and most widely accepted notion of inferential error to come out of the literature on human reasoning. (Evans, 1989, p. 41) If one were to attempt to identify a single problematic aspect of human reasoning that deserves attention above all others, the confirmation bias would have to be among the candidates for consideration. Many have written about this bias, and it appears to be sufficiently strong and pervasive that one is led to wonder whether the bias, by itself, might account for a significant fraction of the disputes, altercations, and misunderstandings that occur among individuals, groups, and nations. Confirmation bias has been used in the psychological literature to refer to a variety of phenomena. Here I take the term to represent a generic concept that subsumes several more specific ideas that connote the inappropriate bolstering of hypotheses or beliefs whose truth is in question.
The Paradoxical Success of Fuzzy Logic
 IEEE Expert
, 1993
"... Applications of fuzzy logic in heuristic control have been highly successful, but which aspects of fuzzy logic are essential to its practical usefulness? This paper shows that an apparently reasonable version of fuzzy logic collapses mathematically to twovalued logic. Moreover, there are few if any ..."
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Cited by 85 (1 self)
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Applications of fuzzy logic in heuristic control have been highly successful, but which aspects of fuzzy logic are essential to its practical usefulness? This paper shows that an apparently reasonable version of fuzzy logic collapses mathematically to twovalued logic. Moreover, there are few if any published reports of expert systems in realworld use that reason about uncertainty using fuzzy logic. It appears that the limitations of fuzzy logic have not been detrimental in control applications because current fuzzy controllers are far simpler than other knowledgebased systems. In the future, the technical limitations of fuzzy logic can be expected to become important in practice, and work on fuzzy controllers will also encounter several problems of scale already known for other knowledgebased systems. 1
Biodiversity Datadiversity
 Social Studies of Science
, 2001
"... : Biodiversity is a dataintense science, drawing as it does on data from a large number of disciplines in order to build up a coherent picture of the extent and trajectory of life on earth. This paper argues that as sets of heterogeneous databases are made to converge, there is a layering of values ..."
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Cited by 41 (4 self)
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: Biodiversity is a dataintense science, drawing as it does on data from a large number of disciplines in order to build up a coherent picture of the extent and trajectory of life on earth. This paper argues that as sets of heterogeneous databases are made to converge, there is a layering of values into the emergent infrastructure. It is argued that this layering process is relatively irreversible, and that it operates simultaneously at a very concrete level (fields in a database) and at a very abstract one (the coding of the relationship between the disciplines and the production of a general ontology). Finally, it is maintained that science studies as a discipline is able to (and should) make a significant contribution to the design of robust and flexible databases which recognize this performative character of infrastructure. Introduction The form of scientific work which has been most studied by sociologists of science is that which leads from the laboratory to the scientific pap...
A Formal Definition of Intelligence Based on an Intensional Variant of Algorithmic Complexity
 In Proceedings of the International Symposium of Engineering of Intelligent Systems (EIS'98
, 1998
"... Machine Due to the current technology of the computers we can use, we have chosen an extremely abridged emulation of the machine that will effectively run the programs, instead of more proper languages, like lcalculus (or LISP). We have adapted the "toy RISC" machine of [Hernndez & H ..."
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Cited by 37 (19 self)
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Machine Due to the current technology of the computers we can use, we have chosen an extremely abridged emulation of the machine that will effectively run the programs, instead of more proper languages, like lcalculus (or LISP). We have adapted the "toy RISC" machine of [Hernndez & Hernndez 1993] with two remarkable features inherited from its objectoriented coding in C++: it is easily tunable for our needs, and it is efficient. We have made it even more reduced, removing any operand in the instruction set, even for the loop operations. We have only three registers which are AX (the accumulator), BX and CX. The operations Q b we have used for our experiment are in Table 1: LOOPTOP Decrements CX. If it is not equal to the first element jump to the program top.
The Eightfold Way of Deliberation Dialogue
 International Journal of Intelligent Systems
, 2002
"... Deliberation dialogues occur when two or more participants seek to jointly agree an action or a course of action in some situation. We present the first formal framework for such dialogues, grounding it in a theory of deliberative reasoning from the philosophy of argumentation. We further fully a ..."
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Cited by 34 (6 self)
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Deliberation dialogues occur when two or more participants seek to jointly agree an action or a course of action in some situation. We present the first formal framework for such dialogues, grounding it in a theory of deliberative reasoning from the philosophy of argumentation. We further fully articulate the locutions and rules of a formal dialogue game for this model, so as to specify a protocol for deliberation dialogues. The resulting protocol is suitable for dialogues between computational entities, such as autonomous software agents. To assess our protocol we consider it against various records of human deliberations, against normative principles for the conduct of human dialogues, and with respect to the outcomes produced by dialogues undertaken according to the protocol.
Experimental Mathematics: Recent Developments and Future Outlook
 CECM PREPRINT 99:143] FFL J.M. BORWEIN AND P.B. BORWEIN, &QUOT;CHALLENGES FOR MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING,&QUOT; COMPUTING IN SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, 2001. [CECM PREPRINT 01:160
, 2000
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Counting complexity classes for numeric computations II: Algebraic and semialgebraic sets (Extended Abstract)
 J. COMPL
, 2004
"... We define counting #P classes #P ¡ and in the BlumShubSmale setting of computations over the real or complex numbers, respectively. The problems of counting the number of solutions of systems of polynomial inequalities over ¢ , or of systems of polynomial equalities over £ , respectively, turn ou ..."
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Cited by 22 (10 self)
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We define counting #P classes #P ¡ and in the BlumShubSmale setting of computations over the real or complex numbers, respectively. The problems of counting the number of solutions of systems of polynomial inequalities over ¢ , or of systems of polynomial equalities over £ , respectively, turn out to be natural complete problems in these classes. We investigate to what extent the new counting classes capture the complexity of computing basic topological invariants of semialgebraic sets (over ¢ ) and algebraic sets (over £). We prove that the problem to compute the (modified) Euler characteristic of semialgebraic sets is FP #P¤complete, and that the problem to compute the geometric degree of complex algebraic sets is FP #P¥complete. We also define new counting complexity classes GCR and GCC in the classical Turing model via taking Boolean parts of the classes above, and show that the problems to compute the Euler characteristic and the geometric degree of (semi)algebraic sets given by integer polynomials are complete in these classes. We complement the results in the Turing model by proving, for all k ¦ ∈ , the FPSPACEhardness of the problem of computing the kth Betti number of the set of real zeros of a given integer polynomial. This holds with respect to the singular homology as well as for the BorelMoore homology.