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58
Deep Neural Networks for Acoustic Modeling in Speech Recognition
"... Most current speech recognition systems use hidden Markov models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian mixture models to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a frame or a short window of frames of coefficients that represents the acoustic input. An alternative ..."
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Cited by 225 (36 self)
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Most current speech recognition systems use hidden Markov models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian mixture models to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a frame or a short window of frames of coefficients that represents the acoustic input. An alternative way to evaluate the fit is to use a feedforward neural network that takes several frames of coefficients as input and produces posterior probabilities over HMM states as output. Deep neural networks with many hidden layers, that are trained using new methods have been shown to outperform Gaussian mixture models on a variety of speech recognition benchmarks, sometimes by a large margin. This paper provides an overview of this progress and represents the shared views of four research groups who have had recent successes in using deep neural networks for acoustic modeling in speech recognition. I.
ContextDependent Pretrained Deep Neural Networks for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition
 IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
, 2012
"... Abstract—We propose a novel contextdependent (CD) model for large vocabulary speech recognition (LVSR) that leverages recent advances in using deep belief networks for phone recognition. We describe a pretrained deep neural network hidden Markov model (DNNHMM) hybrid architecture that trains the ..."
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Cited by 224 (42 self)
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Abstract—We propose a novel contextdependent (CD) model for large vocabulary speech recognition (LVSR) that leverages recent advances in using deep belief networks for phone recognition. We describe a pretrained deep neural network hidden Markov model (DNNHMM) hybrid architecture that trains the DNN to produce a distribution over senones (tied triphone states) as its output. The deep belief network pretraining algorithm is a robust and often helpful way to initialize deep neural networks generatively that can aid in optimization and reduce generalization error. We illustrate the key components of our model, describe the procedure for applying CDDNNHMMs to LVSR, and analyze the effects of various modeling choices on performance. Experiments on a challenging business search dataset demonstrate that CDDNNHMMs can significantly outperform the conventional contextdependent Gaussian mixture model (GMM)HMMs, with an absolute sentence accuracy improvement of 5.8 % and 9.2 % (or relative error reduction of 16.0 % and 23.2%) over the CDGMMHMMs trained using the minimum phone error rate (MPE) and maximum likelihood (ML) criteria, respectively. Index Terms—Speech recognition, deep belief network, contextdependent phone, LVSR, DNNHMM, ANNHMM I.
Representation Learning: A Review and New Perspectives
, 2012
"... The success of machine learning algorithms generally depends on data representation, and we hypothesize that this is because different representations can entangle and hide more or less the different explanatory factors of variation behind the data. Although specific domain knowledge can be used to ..."
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Cited by 153 (4 self)
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The success of machine learning algorithms generally depends on data representation, and we hypothesize that this is because different representations can entangle and hide more or less the different explanatory factors of variation behind the data. Although specific domain knowledge can be used to help design representations, learning with generic priors can also be used, and the quest for AI is motivating the design of more powerful representationlearning algorithms implementing such priors. This paper reviews recent work in the area of unsupervised feature learning and joint training of deep learning, covering advances in probabilistic models, autoencoders, manifold learning, and deep architectures. This motivates longerterm unanswered questions about the appropriate objectives for learning good representations, for computing representations (i.e., inference), and the geometrical connections between representation learning, density estimation and manifold learning.
Deep Sparse Rectifier Neural Networks
"... While logistic sigmoid neurons are more biologically plausible than hyperbolic tangent neurons, the latter work better for training multilayer neural networks. This paper shows that rectifying neurons are an even better model of biological neurons and yield equal or better performance than hyperbol ..."
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Cited by 49 (15 self)
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While logistic sigmoid neurons are more biologically plausible than hyperbolic tangent neurons, the latter work better for training multilayer neural networks. This paper shows that rectifying neurons are an even better model of biological neurons and yield equal or better performance than hyperbolic tangent networks in spite of the hard nonlinearity and nondifferentiability at zero, creating sparse representations with true zeros, which seem remarkably suitable for naturally sparse data. Even though they can take advantage of semisupervised setups with extraunlabeled data, deep rectifier networks can reach their best performance without requiring any unsupervised pretraining on purely supervised tasks with large labeled datasets. Hence, these results can be seen as a new milestone in the attempts at understanding the difficulty in training deep but purely supervised neural networks, and closing the performance gap between neural networks learnt with and without unsupervised pretraining. 1
On the importance of initialization and momentum in deep learning
"... Deep and recurrent neural networks (DNNs and RNNs respectively) are powerful models that were considered to be almost impossible to train using stochastic gradient descent with momentum. In this paper, we show that when stochastic gradient descent with momentum uses a welldesigned random initializa ..."
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Cited by 45 (2 self)
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Deep and recurrent neural networks (DNNs and RNNs respectively) are powerful models that were considered to be almost impossible to train using stochastic gradient descent with momentum. In this paper, we show that when stochastic gradient descent with momentum uses a welldesigned random initialization and a particular type of slowly increasing schedule for the momentum parameter, it can train both DNNs and RNNs (on datasets with longterm dependencies) to levels of performance that were previously achievable only with HessianFree optimization. We find that both the initialization and the momentum are crucial since poorly initialized networks cannot be trained with momentum and wellinitialized networks perform markedly worse when the momentum is absent or poorly tuned. Our success training these models suggests that previous attempts to train deep and recurrent neural networks from random initializations have likely failed due to poor initialization schemes. Furthermore, carefully tuned momentum methods suffice for dealing with the curvature issues in deep and recurrent network training objectives without the need for sophisticated secondorder methods. 1.
Delving Deep into Rectifiers: Surpassing HumanLevel Performance on ImageNet Classification. In: arXiv:abs/1502.01852 [cs.CV
, 2015
"... Rectified activation units (rectifiers) are essential for stateoftheart neural networks. In this work, we study rectifier neural networks for image classification from two aspects. First, we propose a Parametric Rectified Linear Unit (PReLU) that generalizes the traditional rectified unit. PReLU ..."
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Cited by 25 (0 self)
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Rectified activation units (rectifiers) are essential for stateoftheart neural networks. In this work, we study rectifier neural networks for image classification from two aspects. First, we propose a Parametric Rectified Linear Unit (PReLU) that generalizes the traditional rectified unit. PReLU improves model fitting with nearly zero extra computational cost and little overfitting risk. Second, we derive a robust initialization method that particularly considers the rectifier nonlinearities. This method enables us to train extremely deep rectified models directly from scratch and to investigate deeper or wider network architectures. Based on the learnable activation and advanced initialization, we achieve 4.94 % top5 test error on the ImageNet 2012 classification dataset. This is a 26 % relative improvement over the ILSVRC 2014 winner (GoogLeNet, 6.66 % [33]). To our knowledge, our result is the first1 to surpass the reported humanlevel performance (5.1%, [26]) on this dataset.
Practical recommendations for gradientbased training of deep architectures
 Neural Networks: Tricks of the Trade
, 2013
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Deep Learning Made Easier by Linear Transformations in Perceptrons
"... We transform the outputs of each hidden neuron in a multilayer perceptron network to be zero mean and zero slope, and use separate shortcut connections to model the linear dependencies instead. This transformation aims at separating the problems of learning the linear and nonlinear parts of the who ..."
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Cited by 22 (9 self)
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We transform the outputs of each hidden neuron in a multilayer perceptron network to be zero mean and zero slope, and use separate shortcut connections to model the linear dependencies instead. This transformation aims at separating the problems of learning the linear and nonlinear parts of the whole inputoutput mapping, which has many benefits. We study the theoretical properties of the transformation by noting that they make the Fisher information matrix closer to a diagonal matrix, and thus standard gradient closer to the natural gradient. We experimentally confirm the usefulness of the transformations by noting that they make basic stochastic gradient learning competitive with stateoftheart learning algorithms in speed, and that they seem also to help find solutions that generalize better. The experiments include both classification of handwritten digits with a 3layer network and learning a lowdimensional representation for images by using a 6layer autoencoder network. The transformations were beneficial in all cases, with and without regularization. 1
Discriminative deep metric learning for face verification in the wild
 In Proc. CVPR
, 2014
"... This paper presents a new discriminative deep metric learning (DDML) method for face verification in the wild. Different from existing metric learningbased face verification methods which aim to learn a Mahalanobis distance metric to maximize the interclass variations and minimize the intraclass ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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This paper presents a new discriminative deep metric learning (DDML) method for face verification in the wild. Different from existing metric learningbased face verification methods which aim to learn a Mahalanobis distance metric to maximize the interclass variations and minimize the intraclass variations, simultaneously, the proposed DDML trains a deep neural network which learns a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations to project face pairs into the same feature subspace, under which the distance of each positive face pair is less than a smaller threshold and that of each negative pair is higher than a larger threshold, respectively, so that discriminative information can be exploited in the deep network. Our method achieves very competitive face verification performance on the widely used LFW and YouTube Faces (YTF) datasets. 1.
Translating embeddings for modeling multirelational data
 In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26. Curran Associates, Inc
"... We consider the problem of embedding entities and relationships of multirelational data in lowdimensional vector spaces. Our objective is to propose a canonical model which is easy to train, contains a reduced number of parameters and can scale up to very large databases. Hence, we propose TransE, ..."
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Cited by 19 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of embedding entities and relationships of multirelational data in lowdimensional vector spaces. Our objective is to propose a canonical model which is easy to train, contains a reduced number of parameters and can scale up to very large databases. Hence, we propose TransE, a method which models relationships by interpreting them as translations operating on the lowdimensional embeddings of the entities. Despite its simplicity, this assumption proves to be powerful since extensive experiments show that TransE significantly outperforms stateoftheart methods in link prediction on two knowledge bases. Besides, it can be successfully trained on a large scale data set with 1M entities, 25k relationships and more than 17M training samples. 1