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36
Finding Naked People
, 1996
"... . This paper demonstrates a contentbased retrieval strategy that can tell whether there are naked people present in an image. No manual intervention is required. The approach combines color and texture properties to obtain an effective mask for skin regions. The skin mask is shown to be effective f ..."
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Cited by 144 (7 self)
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. This paper demonstrates a contentbased retrieval strategy that can tell whether there are naked people present in an image. No manual intervention is required. The approach combines color and texture properties to obtain an effective mask for skin regions. The skin mask is shown to be effective for a wide range of shades and colors of skin. These skin regions are then fed to a specialized grouper, which attempts to group a human figure using geometric constraints on human structure. This approach introduces a new view of object recognition, where an object model is an organized collection of grouping hints obtained from a combination of constraints on geometric properties such as the structure of individual parts, and the relationships between parts, and constraints on color and texture. The system is demonstrated to have 60% precision and 52% recall on a test set of 138 uncontrolled images of naked people, mostly obtained from the internet, and 1401 assorted control images, drawn f...
Canonical Frames for Planar Object Recognition
, 1992
"... We present a canonical frame construction for determining projectively invariant indexing functions for nonalgebraic smooth plane curves. These invariants are semilocal rather than global, which promotes tolerance to occlusion. Two applications are demonstrated. Firstly, we report preliminary work ..."
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Cited by 58 (10 self)
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We present a canonical frame construction for determining projectively invariant indexing functions for nonalgebraic smooth plane curves. These invariants are semilocal rather than global, which promotes tolerance to occlusion. Two applications are demonstrated. Firstly, we report preliminary work on building a model based recognition system for planar objects. We demonstrate that the invariant measures, derived from the canonical frame, provide sufficient discrimination between objects to be useful for recognition. Recognition is of partially occluded objects in cluttered scenes. Secondly, jigsaw puzzles are assembled and rendered from a single strongly perspective view of the separate pieces. Both applications require no camera calibration or pose information, and models are generated and verified directly from images.
Extracting Projective Structure from Single Perspective Views of 3D Point Sets
 Views of 3D Point Sets Proc. of 4:th ICCV
, 1993
"... A number of recent papers have argued that invariants do not exist for three dimensional point sets in general position [3, 4, 13]. This has often been misinterpreted to mean that invariants cannot be computed for any three dimensional structure. This paper proves by example that although the genera ..."
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Cited by 57 (11 self)
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A number of recent papers have argued that invariants do not exist for three dimensional point sets in general position [3, 4, 13]. This has often been misinterpreted to mean that invariants cannot be computed for any three dimensional structure. This paper proves by example that although the general statement is true, invariants do exist for structured three dimensional point sets. Projective invariants are derived for two classes of object: the first is for points that lie on the vertices of polyhedra, and the second for objects that are projectively equivalent to ones possessing a bilateral symmetry. The motivations for computing such invariants are twofold: firstly they can be used for recognition; secondly they can be used to compute projective structure. Examples of invariants computed from real images are given. 1 Introduction Exploiting structure modulo a projectivity has recently been shown to simplify a number of vision tasks such as model based recognition [1, 7, 10, 11, 1...
Planar Object Recognition using Projective Shape Representation
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1995
"... We describe a model based recognition system, called LEWIS, for the identification of planar objects based on a projectively invariant representation of shape. The advantages of this shape description include simple model acquisition (direct from images), no need for camera calibration or object pos ..."
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Cited by 53 (9 self)
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We describe a model based recognition system, called LEWIS, for the identification of planar objects based on a projectively invariant representation of shape. The advantages of this shape description include simple model acquisition (direct from images), no need for camera calibration or object pose computation, and the use of index functions. We describe the feature construction and recognition algorithms in detail and provide an analysis of the combinatorial advantages of using index functions. Index functions are used to select models from a model base and are constructed from projective invariants based on algebraic curves and a canonical projective coordinate frame. Examples are given of object recognition from images of real scenes, with extensive object libraries. Successful recognition is demonstrated despite partial occlusion by unmodelled objects, and realistic lighting conditions. 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview In the context of this paper, recognition is defined as the prob...
Invariants of Six Points and Projective Reconstruction from Three Uncalibrated Images
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1995
"... There are three projective invariants of a set of six points in general position in space. It is well known that these invariants cannot be recovered from one image, however an invariant relationship does exist between space invariants and image invariants. This invariant relationship is first deriv ..."
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Cited by 46 (15 self)
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There are three projective invariants of a set of six points in general position in space. It is well known that these invariants cannot be recovered from one image, however an invariant relationship does exist between space invariants and image invariants. This invariant relationship is first derived for a single image. Then this invariant relationship is used to derive the space invariants, when multiple images are available. This paper establishes that the minimum number of images for computing these invariants is three, and the computation of invariants of six points from three images can have as many as three solutions. Algorithms are presented for computing these invariants in closed form. The accuracy and stability with respect to image noise, selection of the triplets of images and distance between viewing positions are studied both through real and simulated images. Applications of these invariants are also presented. Both the results of Faugeras [1] and Hartley et al. [2] for...
Finding Pictures of Objects in Large Collections of Images
, 1996
"... . Retrieving images from very large collections, using image content as a key, is becoming an important problem. Users prefer to ask for pictures using notions of content that are strongly oriented to the presence of abstractly defined objects. Computer programs that implement these queries automati ..."
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Cited by 43 (3 self)
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. Retrieving images from very large collections, using image content as a key, is becoming an important problem. Users prefer to ask for pictures using notions of content that are strongly oriented to the presence of abstractly defined objects. Computer programs that implement these queries automatically are desirable, but are hard to build because conventional object recognition techniques from computer vision cannot recognize very general objects in very general contexts. This paper describes our approach to object recognition, which is structured around a sequence of increasingly specialized grouping activities that assemble coherent regions of image that can be shown to satisfy increasingly stringent constraints. The constraints that are satisfied provide a form of object classification in quite general contexts. This view of recognition is distinguished by: far richer involvement of early visual primitives, including color and texture; hierarchical grouping and learning strategies...
ModelBased Invariants for 3D Vision
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1993
"... Invariance under a group of 3D transformations seems a desirable component of an efficient 3D shape representation. We propose representations which are invariant under weak perspective to either rigid or affine 3D transformations, and we show how they can be computed efficiently from a sequence of ..."
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Cited by 36 (8 self)
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Invariance under a group of 3D transformations seems a desirable component of an efficient 3D shape representation. We propose representations which are invariant under weak perspective to either rigid or affine 3D transformations, and we show how they can be computed efficiently from a sequence of images with a linear and incremental algorithm. We show simulated results with perspective projection and noise, and the results of model acquisition from a real sequence of images. The use of linear computation, together with the integration through time of invariant representations, offers improved robustness and stability. Using these invariant representations, we derive modelbased projective invariant functions of general 3D objects. We discuss the use of the modelbased invariants with existing recognition strategies: alignment without transformation, and constant time indexing from 2D images of general 3D objects.
Recognition Using Region Correspondences
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1995
"... A central problem in object recognition is to determine the transformation that relates the model to the image, given some partial correspondence between the two. This is useful in determining whether an object is present in an image, and if so, determining where the object is. We present a novel me ..."
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Cited by 34 (7 self)
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A central problem in object recognition is to determine the transformation that relates the model to the image, given some partial correspondence between the two. This is useful in determining whether an object is present in an image, and if so, determining where the object is. We present a novel method of solving this problem that uses region information. In our approach the model is divided into volumes, and the image is divided into regions. Given a match between subsets of volumes and regions (without any explicit correspondence between different pieces of the regions) the alignment transformation is computed. The method applies to planar objects under similarity, affine, and projective transformations and to projections of 3D objects undergoing affine and projective transformations. 1 Introduction A fundamental problem in recognition is pose estimation. Given a correspondence between some portions of an object model and some portions of an image, determine the transformation th...
Space Efficient 3D Model Indexing
 In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
, 1992
"... We show that the set of 2D images produced by the point features of a rigid 3D model can be represented with two lines in two highdimensional spaces. These lines are the lowestdimensional representation possible. We use this result to build a system for representing in a hash table at compile time ..."
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Cited by 28 (4 self)
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We show that the set of 2D images produced by the point features of a rigid 3D model can be represented with two lines in two highdimensional spaces. These lines are the lowestdimensional representation possible. We use this result to build a system for representing in a hash table at compile time, all the images that groups of model features can produce. Then at run time a group of image features can access the table and find all model groups that could match it. This table is efficient in terms of space, and is built and accessed through analytic methods that account for the effect of sensing error. In real images, it reduces the set of potential matches by a factor of several thousand. We also use this representation of a model's images to analyze two other approaches to recognition: invariants, and nonaccidental properties. These are properties of images that some models always produce, and all other models either never produce (invariants) or almost never produce (nonaccidental properties). In several domains we determine when invariants exist. In general we show that there are an infinite set of nonaccidenta properties that are qualitatively similar.
Recognizing Algebraic Surfaces from their Outlines
 IN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION
, 1992
"... The outline in a single picture of a generic algebraic surface of degree three or greater completely determines the projective geometry of the surface. The result holds for a generic perspective view of ageneric algebraic surface, where the camera calibration parameters and the focal point are unkno ..."
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Cited by 25 (4 self)
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The outline in a single picture of a generic algebraic surface of degree three or greater completely determines the projective geometry of the surface. The result holds for a generic perspective view of ageneric algebraic surface, where the camera calibration parameters and the focal point are unknown. Known camera calibration appears not to reduce the projectiveambiguity.The result is constructive.