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442
Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals
 Communication of ACM
, 1983
"... The problem of representing temporal knowledge arises ill many areas of computer science. In applications in which such knowledge is imprecise or relative, current representations based on date lines or time instants are inadequate. An intervalbased temporal logic is introduced, together WiUl a com ..."
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Cited by 2278 (9 self)
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The problem of representing temporal knowledge arises ill many areas of computer science. In applications in which such knowledge is imprecise or relative, current representations based on date lines or time instants are inadequate. An intervalbased temporal logic is introduced, together WiUl a computationally effective reasoning algorithm based on constraint propagation. This system is notable in offering a delicate balance between expressive power and the efficiency of its deductive engine. A notion of reference intervals is introduced which captures the temporal hierarchy implicit in many domains, and which can be used to precisely control the amount of deduction performed automatically by the system. Examples.are provided for a data base containing historical data, a d<lta base. used for modeling processes and process interaction, and a data base for an interactive system where the present moment is continually being updated.
Constraint Networks
, 1992
"... Constraintbased reasoning is a paradigm for formulating knowledge as a set of constraints without specifying the method by which these constraints are to be satisfied. A variety of techniques have been developed for finding partial or complete solutions for different kinds of constraint expression ..."
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Cited by 948 (42 self)
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Constraintbased reasoning is a paradigm for formulating knowledge as a set of constraints without specifying the method by which these constraints are to be satisfied. A variety of techniques have been developed for finding partial or complete solutions for different kinds of constraint expressions. These have been successfully applied to diverse tasks such as design, diagnosis, truth maintenance, scheduling, spatiotemporal reasoning, logic programming and user interface. Constraint networks are graphical representations used to guide strategies for solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs).
Abduction in Logic Programming
"... Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over th ..."
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Cited by 538 (74 self)
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Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over the last ten years and to take a critical view of these developments from several perspectives: logical, epistemological, computational and suitability to application. The paper attempts to expose some of the challenges and prospects for the further development of the field.
Fusion, Propagation, and Structuring in Belief Networks
, 1986
"... Belief networks are directed acyclic graphs in which the nodes represent propositions (or variables), the arcs signify direct dependencies between the linked propositions, and the strengths of these dependencies are quantified by conditional probabilities. A network of this sort can be used to repre ..."
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Cited by 381 (7 self)
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Belief networks are directed acyclic graphs in which the nodes represent propositions (or variables), the arcs signify direct dependencies between the linked propositions, and the strengths of these dependencies are quantified by conditional probabilities. A network of this sort can be used to represent the generic knowledge of a domain expert, and it turns into a computational architecture if the links are used not merely for storing factual knowledge but also for directing and activating the data flow in the computations which manipulate this knowledge. The first part of the paper deals with the task of fusing and propagating the impacts of new information through the networks in such a way that, when equilibrium is reached, each proposition will be assigned a measure of belief consistent with the axioms of probability theory. It is shown that if the network is singly connected (e.g. treestructured), then probabilities can be updated by local propagation in an isomorphic network of parallel and autonomous processors and that the impact of new information can be imparted to all propositions in time proportional to the longest path in the network. The second part of the paper deals with the problem of finding a treestructured representation for a collection of probabilistically coupled propositions using auxiliary (dummy) variables, colloquially called "hidden causes. " It is shown that if such a treestructured representation exists, then it is possible to uniquely uncover the topology of the tree by observing pairwise dependencies among the available propositions (i.e., the leaves of the tree). The entire tree structure, including the strengths of all internal relationships, can be reconstructed in time proportional to n log n, where n is the number of leaves.
Algorithms for Constraint Satisfaction Problems: A Survey
 AI MAGAZINE
, 1992
"... A large variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of computer science can be viewed as a special case of the constraint satisfaction problem. Some examples are machine vision, belief maintenance, scheduling, temporal reasoning, graph problems, floor plan design, planning genetic ..."
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Cited by 372 (0 self)
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A large variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of computer science can be viewed as a special case of the constraint satisfaction problem. Some examples are machine vision, belief maintenance, scheduling, temporal reasoning, graph problems, floor plan design, planning genetic experiments, and the satisfiability problem. A number of different approaches have been developed for solving these problems. Some of them use constraint propagation to simplify the original problem. Others use backtracking to directly search for possible solutions. Some are a combination of these two techniques. This paper presents a brief overview of many of these approaches in a tutorial fashion.
OPlan: the Open Planning Architecture
, 1990
"... OPlan is an AI planner based on previous experience with the Nonlin planner and its derivatives. Nonlin and other similar planning systems had limited control architectures and were only partially successful at limiting their search spaces. OPlan is a design and implementation of a more flexible s ..."
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Cited by 315 (35 self)
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OPlan is an AI planner based on previous experience with the Nonlin planner and its derivatives. Nonlin and other similar planning systems had limited control architectures and were only partially successful at limiting their search spaces. OPlan is a design and implementation of a more flexible system aimed at supporting planning research and development, opening up new planning methods and supporting strong search control heuristics. OPlan takes an engineering approach to the construction of an efficient domain independent planning system which includes a mixture of AI and numerical techniques from Operations Research. The main contributions of the work are centred around the control of search within the OPlan planning framework, and this paper outlines the search control heuristics employed within the planner. These involve the use of condition typing, time and resource constraints and domain constraints to allow knowledge about an application domain to be used to prune the searc...
Extending and Implementing the Stable Model Semantics
, 2002
"... A novel logic program like language, weight constraint rules, is developed for answer set programming purposes. It generalizes normal logic programs by allowing weight constraints in place of literals to represent, e.g., cardinality and resource constraints and by providing optimization capabilities ..."
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Cited by 312 (5 self)
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A novel logic program like language, weight constraint rules, is developed for answer set programming purposes. It generalizes normal logic programs by allowing weight constraints in place of literals to represent, e.g., cardinality and resource constraints and by providing optimization capabilities. A declarative semantics is developed which extends the stable model semantics of normal programs. The computational complexity of the language is shown to be similar to that of normal programs under the stable model semantics. A simple embedding of general weight constraint rules to a small subclass of the language called basic constraint rules is devised. An implementation of the language, the smodels system, is developed based on this embedding. It uses a two level architecture consisting of a frontend and a kernel language implementation. The frontend allows restricted use of variables and functions and compiles general weight constraint rules to basic constraint rules. A major part of the work is the development of an ecient search procedure for computing stable models for this kernel language. The procedure is compared with and empirically tested against satis ability checkers and an implementation of the stable model semantics. It offers a competitive implementation of the stable model semantics for normal programs and attractive performance for problems where the new types of rules provide a compact representation.
Representing and Using NonFunctional Requirements: A ProcessOriented Approach
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1992
"... The paper proposes a comprehensive framework for representing and using nonfunctional requirements during the development process. The framework consists of five basic components which provide for the representation of nonfunctional requirements in terms of interrelated goals. Such goals can be re ..."
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Cited by 293 (38 self)
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The paper proposes a comprehensive framework for representing and using nonfunctional requirements during the development process. The framework consists of five basic components which provide for the representation of nonfunctional requirements in terms of interrelated goals. Such goals can be refined through refinement methods and can be evaluated in order to determine the degree to which a set of nonfunctional requirements is supported by a particular design. Evidence for the power of the framework is provided through the study of accuracy and performance requirements for information systems. 1
The Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problem: Formalization and Algorithms
 IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
, 1998
"... In this paper, we develop a formalism called a distributed constraint satisfaction problem (distributed CSP) and algorithms for solving distributed CSPs. A distributed CSP is a constraint satisfaction problem in which variables and constraints are distributed among multiple agents. Various applica ..."
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Cited by 270 (22 self)
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In this paper, we develop a formalism called a distributed constraint satisfaction problem (distributed CSP) and algorithms for solving distributed CSPs. A distributed CSP is a constraint satisfaction problem in which variables and constraints are distributed among multiple agents. Various application problems in Distributed Artificial Intelligence can be formalized as distributed CSPs. We present our newly developed technique called asynchronous backtracking that allows agents to act asynchronously and concurrently without any global control, while guaranteeing the completeness of the algorithm. Furthermore, we describe how the asynchronous backtracking algorithm can be modified into a more efficient algorithm called an asynchronous weakcommitment search, which can revise a bad decision without exhaustive search by changing the priority order of agents dynamically. The experimental results on various example problems show that the asynchronous weakcommitment search algorithm ...
Inference Networks for Document Retrieval
, 1990
"... The use of inference networks to support document retrieval is introduced. A networkbasead retrieval model is described and compared to conventional probabilistic and Boolean models. 1 ..."
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Cited by 238 (8 self)
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The use of inference networks to support document retrieval is introduced. A networkbasead retrieval model is described and compared to conventional probabilistic and Boolean models. 1