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19
On the Strength of Ramsey's Theorem
 Notre Dame J. Formal Logic
, 1995
"... this paper we study the logical strength of Ramsey's Theorem (1930), especially of Ramsey's Theorem for partitions of pairs into two pieces. ..."
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this paper we study the logical strength of Ramsey's Theorem (1930), especially of Ramsey's Theorem for partitions of pairs into two pieces.
Natural Definability in Degree Structures
"... . A major focus of research in computability theory in recent years has involved denability issues in degree structures. There has been much success in getting general results by coding methods that translate rst or second order arithmetic into the structures. In this paper we concentrate on the ..."
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. A major focus of research in computability theory in recent years has involved denability issues in degree structures. There has been much success in getting general results by coding methods that translate rst or second order arithmetic into the structures. In this paper we concentrate on the issues of getting denitions of interesting, apparently external, relations on degrees that are ordertheoretically natural in the structures D and R of all the Turing degrees and of the r.e. Turing degrees, respectively. Of course, we have no formal denition of natural but we oer some guidelines, examples and suggestions for further research. 1. Introduction A major focus of research in computability theory in recent years has involved denability issues in degree structures. The basic question is, which interesting apparently external relations on degrees can actually be dened in the structures themselves, that is, in the rst order language with the single fundamental relation...
Double Jump Inversions and Strong Minimal Covers in the Turing Degrees
, 2004
"... Decidability problems for (fragments of) the theory of the structure D of Turing degrees, form a wide and interesting class, much of which is yet unsolved. Lachlan showed in 1968 that the first order theory of D with the Turing reducibility relation is undecidable. Later results concerned the decida ..."
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Decidability problems for (fragments of) the theory of the structure D of Turing degrees, form a wide and interesting class, much of which is yet unsolved. Lachlan showed in 1968 that the first order theory of D with the Turing reducibility relation is undecidable. Later results concerned the decidability (or undecidability) of fragments of this theory, and of other theories obtained by extending the language (e.g. with 0 or with the Turing jump operator). Proofs of these results often hinge on the ability to embed certain classes of structures (lattices, jumphierarchies, etc.) in certain ways, into the structure of Turing degrees. The first part of the dissertation presents two results which concern embeddings onto initial segments of D with known double jumps, in other words a double jump inversion of certain degree structures onto initial segments. These results may prove to be useful tools in uncovering decidability results for (fragments of) the theory of the Turing degrees in languages containing the double jump operator. The second part of the dissertation relates to the problem of characterizing the Turing degrees which have a strong minimal cover, an issue first raised by Spector in 1956. Ishmukhametov solved the problem for the recursively enumerable degrees, by showing that those which have a strong minimal cover are exactly the r.e. weakly recursive degrees. Here we show that this characterization fails outside the r.e. degrees, and also construct a minimal degree below 0 ′ which is not weakly recursive, thereby answering a question from Ishmukhametov’s paper.
Global Properties of the Turing Degrees and the Turing Jump
"... We present a summary of the lectures delivered to the Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Singapore, during the 2005 Summer School in Mathematical Logic. The lectures covered topics on the global structure of the Turing degrees D, the countability of its automorphism group, and the definability of ..."
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We present a summary of the lectures delivered to the Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Singapore, during the 2005 Summer School in Mathematical Logic. The lectures covered topics on the global structure of the Turing degrees D, the countability of its automorphism group, and the definability of the Turing jump within D.
Generalized high degrees have the complementation property
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
"... Abstract. We show that if d ∈ GH1 then D( ≤ d) has the complementation property, i.e. for all a < d there is some b < d such that a ∧ b = 0 and a ∨ b = d. §1. Introduction. A major theme in the investigation of the structure of the Turing degrees, (D, ≤T), has been the relationship between the order ..."
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Abstract. We show that if d ∈ GH1 then D( ≤ d) has the complementation property, i.e. for all a < d there is some b < d such that a ∧ b = 0 and a ∨ b = d. §1. Introduction. A major theme in the investigation of the structure of the Turing degrees, (D, ≤T), has been the relationship between the order theoretic properties of a degree and its complexity of definition in arithmetic as expressed by the Turing jump operator which embodies a single step in the hierarchy of quantification. For example, there is a long history of results showing that 0 ′
Definability and Global Degree Theory
 Logic Colloquium '90, Association of Symbolic Logic Summer Meeting in Helsinki, Berlin 1993 [Lecture Notes in Logic 2
"... Gödel's work [Gö34] on undecidable theories and the subsequent formalisations of the notion of a recursive function ([Tu36], [K136] etc.) have led to an ever deepening understanding of the nature of the noncomputable universe (which as Gödel himself showed, includes sets and functions of everyday s ..."
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Gödel's work [Gö34] on undecidable theories and the subsequent formalisations of the notion of a recursive function ([Tu36], [K136] etc.) have led to an ever deepening understanding of the nature of the noncomputable universe (which as Gödel himself showed, includes sets and functions of everyday significance). The nontrivial aspect of Church's Thesis (any function not contained within one of the equivalent definitions of recursive/Turing computable, cannot be considered to be effectively computable) still provides a basis not only for classical and generalised recursion theory, but also for contemporary theoretical computer science. Recent years, in parallel with the massive increase in interest in the computable universe and the development of much subtler concepts of 'practically computable', have seen remarkable progress with some of the most basic and challenging questions concerning the noncomputable universe, results both of philosophical significance and of potentially wider technical importance. Relativising Church's Thesis, Kleene and Post [KP54] proposed the now
Jumps of minimal degrees below 0
 J. London Math. Soc
, 1996
"... Abstract. We show that there is a degree a REA in and low over 0 ′ such that no minimal degree below 0 ′ jumps to a degree above a. We also show that every nonlow r.e. degree bounds a nonlow minimal degree. Introduction. An important and longstanding area of investigation in recursion theory has be ..."
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Abstract. We show that there is a degree a REA in and low over 0 ′ such that no minimal degree below 0 ′ jumps to a degree above a. We also show that every nonlow r.e. degree bounds a nonlow minimal degree. Introduction. An important and longstanding area of investigation in recursion theory has been the relationship between quantifier complexity of the definitions of sets in arithmetic as expressed by the jump operator and the basic notion of relative computability as expressed by the ordering of the (Turing) degrees. In this paper we
The complexity of orbits of computably enumerable sets
 BULLETIN OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC
, 2008
"... The goal of this paper is to announce there is a single orbit of the c.e. sets with inclusion, E, such that the question of membership in this orbit is Σ1 1complete. This result and proof have a number of nice corollaries: the Scott rank of E is ωCK 1 + 1; not all orbits are elementarily definable; ..."
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The goal of this paper is to announce there is a single orbit of the c.e. sets with inclusion, E, such that the question of membership in this orbit is Σ1 1complete. This result and proof have a number of nice corollaries: the Scott rank of E is ωCK 1 + 1; not all orbits are elementarily definable; there is no arithmetic description of all orbits of E; for all finite α ≥ 9, there is a properly ∆0 α orbit (from the proof).
Almost Weakly 2Generic Sets
 in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual IEEE Structure in Complexity Theory Conference
, 1996
"... There is a family of questions in relativized complexity theoryweak analogs of the Friedberg JumpInversion Theoremthat are resolved by 1generic sets but which cannot be resolved by essentially any weaker notion of genericity. This paper defines aw2generic sets, i.e., sets which meet ever ..."
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There is a family of questions in relativized complexity theoryweak analogs of the Friedberg JumpInversion Theoremthat are resolved by 1generic sets but which cannot be resolved by essentially any weaker notion of genericity. This paper defines aw2generic sets, i.e., sets which meet every dense set of strings that is r.e. in some incomplete r.e. set. Aw2generic sets are very close to 1generic sets in strength, but are too weak to resolve these questions. In particular, it is shown that for any set X there is an aw2generic set G such that NP G " coNP G 6` P G\PhiX . (On the other hand, if G is 1generic, then NP G " coNP G ` P G\PhiSAT , where SAT is the NP complete Satisfiability problem [6].) This result runs counter to the fact that most finite extension constructions in complexity theory can be made effective. These results imply that any finite extension construction that ensures any of the Friedberg analogs must be noneffective, even relative to an arbitrary incomplete r.e. set. It is then shown that the recursion theoretic properties of aw2generic sets differ radically from those of 1generic sets: every degree above 0 0 contains an aw2generic set; no aw2generic set exists below any incomplete r.e. set; there is an aw2generic set which is the join of two Turing equivalent aw2generic sets. Finally, a result of Shore is presented [30] which states that every degree above 0 0 is the jump of an aw2generic degree. 1