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124
FAST VOLUME RENDERING USING A SHEARWARP FACTORIZATION OF THE VIEWING TRANSFORMATION
, 1995
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that req ..."
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Cited by 541 (2 self)
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Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that require on the order of 100 seconds to render typical data sets on a workstation. Algorithms with optimizations that exploit coherence in the data have reduced rendering times to the range of ten seconds but are still not fast enough for interactive visualization applications. In this thesis we present a family of volume rendering algorithms that reduces rendering times to one second. First we present a scanlineorder volume rendering algorithm that exploits coherence in both the volume data and the image. We show that scanlineorder algorithms are fundamentally more efficient than commonlyused ray casting algorithms because the latter must perform analytic geometry calculations (e.g. intersecting rays with axisaligned boxes). The new scanlineorder algorithm simply streams through the volume and the image in storage order. We describe variants of the algorithm for both parallel and perspective projections and
Footprint evaluation for volume rendering
 Computer Graphics
, 1990
"... This paper presents a forward mapping rendering algorithm to display regular volumetric grids that may not have the same spacings in the three grid directions. It takes advantage of the fact that convolution can be thought of as distributing energy from input samples into space. The renderer calcul ..."
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Cited by 504 (1 self)
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This paper presents a forward mapping rendering algorithm to display regular volumetric grids that may not have the same spacings in the three grid directions. It takes advantage of the fact that convolution can be thought of as distributing energy from input samples into space. The renderer calculates an image plane footprint for each data sample and uses the footprint to spread the sample's energy onto the image plane. A result of the technique is that the forward mapping algorithm can support perspective without excessive cost, and support adaptive resampling of the threedimensional data set during image generation.
Efficient ray tracing of volume data
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1990
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing sampled scalar or vector fields of three spatial dimensions without fitting geometric primitives to the data. A subset of these techniques generates images by computing 2D projections of a colored semitransparent volume, where the color and opacity at ..."
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Cited by 390 (4 self)
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Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing sampled scalar or vector fields of three spatial dimensions without fitting geometric primitives to the data. A subset of these techniques generates images by computing 2D projections of a colored semitransparent volume, where the color and opacity at each point are derived from the data using local operators. Since all voxels participate in the generation of each image, rendering time grows linearly with the size of the dataset. This paper presents a fronttoback imageorder volumerendering algorithm and discusses two techniques for improving its performance. The first technique employs a pyramid of binary volumes to encode spatial coherence present in the data, and the second technique uses an opacity threshold to adaptively terminate ray tracing. Although the actual time saved depends on the data, speedups of an order of magnitude have been observed for datasets of useful size and complexity. Examples from two applications are given: medical imaging and molecular graphics.
Merging Virtual Objects with the Real World: Seeing Ultrasound Imagery within the Patient
, 1992
"... We describe initial results which show “live” ultrasound echography data visualized within a pregnant human subject. The visualization is achieved by using a small video camera mounted in front of a conventional headmounted display worn by an observer. The camera’s video images are composite with c ..."
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Cited by 203 (15 self)
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We describe initial results which show “live” ultrasound echography data visualized within a pregnant human subject. The visualization is achieved by using a small video camera mounted in front of a conventional headmounted display worn by an observer. The camera’s video images are composite with computergenerated ones that contain one or more 2D ultrasound images properly transformed to the observer’s current viewing position. As the observer walks around the subject. the ultrasound images appear stationary in 3space within the subject. This kind of enhancement of the observer’s vision may have many other applications, e.g., image guided surgical procedures and on location 3D interactive architecture preview.
Fourier volume rendering
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1993
"... In computer graphics we have traditionally rendered images of data sets specified spatially, Here, we present a volume rendering technique that operates on a frequency domain representation of the data set and that efficiently generates line integral projections of the spatial data it represents, Th ..."
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Cited by 130 (1 self)
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In computer graphics we have traditionally rendered images of data sets specified spatially, Here, we present a volume rendering technique that operates on a frequency domain representation of the data set and that efficiently generates line integral projections of the spatial data it represents, The motivation for this approach is that the Fourier ProjectionSlice Theorem allows us to compute 2D projections of 3D data seta using only a 2D slice of the data in the frequency domain. In general, these “Xraylike ” images can be rendered at a significantly lower computational cost than images generated by current volume rendering techniques, Additionally, assurances of image accuracy can he made.
Fast Algorithms for Volume Ray Tracing
, 1992
"... We examine various simple algorithms that exploit homogeneity and accumulated opacity for tracing rays through shaded volumes. Most of these methods have error criteria which allow them to trade quality for speed. The time vs. quality tradeoff for these adaptive methods is compared to fixed step mul ..."
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Cited by 123 (0 self)
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We examine various simple algorithms that exploit homogeneity and accumulated opacity for tracing rays through shaded volumes. Most of these methods have error criteria which allow them to trade quality for speed. The time vs. quality tradeoff for these adaptive methods is compared to fixed step multiresolution methods. These methods are also useful for general light transport in volumes. 1 Introduction We are interested in speeding volume ray tracing computations. We concentrate on the one dimensional problem of tracing a single ray, or computing the intensity at a point from a single direction. In addition to being the kernel of a simple volume ray tracer, this computation can be used to generate shadow volumes and as an element in more general light transport problems. Our data structures will be view independent to speed the production of animations of preshaded volumes and interactive viewing. In [11] Levoy introduced two key concepts which we will be expanding on: presence accel...
Interactive ray tracing for volume visualization
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1999
"... AbstractWe present a bruteforce ray tracing system for interactive volume visualization, The system runs on a conventional (distributed) sharedmemory multiprocessor machine. For each pixel we trace a ray through a volume to compute the color for that pixel. Although this method has high intrinsic ..."
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Cited by 121 (27 self)
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AbstractWe present a bruteforce ray tracing system for interactive volume visualization, The system runs on a conventional (distributed) sharedmemory multiprocessor machine. For each pixel we trace a ray through a volume to compute the color for that pixel. Although this method has high intrinsic computational cost, its simplicity and scalability make it ideal for large datasets on current highend parallel systems. To gain efficiency several optimizations are used including a volume bricking scheme and a shallow data hierarchy. These optimizations are used in three separate visualization algorithms: isosurfacing of rectilinear data, isosurfacing of unstructured data, and maximumintensity projection on rectilinear data. The system runs interactively (i.e., several frames per second) on an SGI Reality Monster. The graphics capabilities of the Reality Monster are used only for display of the final color image. Index TermsRay tracing, visualization, isosurface, maximumintensity projection.
Direct Volume Rendering with Shading via ThreeDimensional Textures
, 1996
"... A new and easytoimplement method for direct volume rendering that uses 3D texture maps for acceleration, and incorporates directional lighting, is described. The implementation, called Voltx, produces highquality images at nearly interactive speeds on workstations with hardware support for three ..."
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Cited by 104 (1 self)
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A new and easytoimplement method for direct volume rendering that uses 3D texture maps for acceleration, and incorporates directional lighting, is described. The implementation, called Voltx, produces highquality images at nearly interactive speeds on workstations with hardware support for threedimensional texture maps. Previously reported methods did not incorporate a light model, and did not address issues of multiple texture maps for large volumes. Our research shows that these extensions impact performance by about a factor of ten. Voltx supports orthographic, perspective, and stereo views. This paper describes the theory and implementation of this technique, and compares it to the shearwarp factorization approach. A rectilinear data set is converted into a threedimensional texture map containing color and opacity information. Quantized normal vectors and a lookup table provide efficiency. A new tesselation of the sphere is described, which serves as the basis for normalvec...
Topological Considerations in Isosurface Generation
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1994
"... A popular technique for rendition of isosurfaces in sampled data is to consider cells with sample points as corners and approximate the isosurface in each cell by one or more polygons whose vertices are obtained by interpolation of the sample data. That is, each polygon vertex is a point on a cell e ..."
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Cited by 99 (0 self)
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A popular technique for rendition of isosurfaces in sampled data is to consider cells with sample points as corners and approximate the isosurface in each cell by one or more polygons whose vertices are obtained by interpolation of the sample data. That is, each polygon vertex is a point on a cell edge, between two adjacent sample points, where the function is estimated to equal the desired threshold value. The two sample points have values on opposite sides of the threshold, and the interpolated point is called an intersection point. When one cell face has an intersection point ineach of its four edges, then the correct connection among intersection points becomes ambiguous. An incorrect connection can lead to erroneous topology in the rendered surface, and possible discontinuities. We show that disambiguation methods, to be at all accurate, need to consider sample values in the neighborhood outside the cell. This paper studies the problems of disambiguation, reports on some solutions, and presents some statistics on the occurrence of such ambiguities. A natural way to incorporate neighborhood information is through the use of calculated gradients at cell corners. They provide insight into the behavior of a function in wellunderstood ways. We introduce two gradientconsistency heuristics that use calculated gradients at the corners of ambiguous faces, as well as the function values at those corners, to disambiguate at a reasonable computational cost. These methods give the correct topology on several examples that caused problems for other methods we examined.
Hardware Assisted Volume Rendering of Unstructured Grids by Incremental Slicing
, 1996
"... Some of the more important research results in computational science rely on the use of simulation methods that operate on unstructured grids. However, these grids, composed of a set of convex polyhedra, introduce exceptional problems with respect to data visualization. Volume rendering techniques ..."
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Cited by 73 (0 self)
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Some of the more important research results in computational science rely on the use of simulation methods that operate on unstructured grids. However, these grids, composed of a set of convex polyhedra, introduce exceptional problems with respect to data visualization. Volume rendering techniques, originally developed to handle rectangular grids, show significant promise for general use with unstructured grids as well. The main disadvantage of this approach, compared to isosurfaces, particles or other visualization tools is its noninteractive performance. We describe an efficient method for rendering unstructured grids that is based on incremental slicing and hardware polygon rendering. For a given view direction, the grid vertices are transformed to image space using available graphics hardware. We then incrementally compute the 2D polygonmeshes that result from letting a set of equidistant planes, parallel to the screen plane, intersect (slice) the transformed grid. Final...