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54
Parallel Search of Strongly Ordered Game Trees
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1982
"... ... This paper draws upon experiences gained during the development of programs which search chess game trees. Over the past decade major enhancements to the alphabeta algorithm have been developed by people building gameplaying programs, and many of these methods will be surveyed and compared her ..."
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Cited by 90 (18 self)
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... This paper draws upon experiences gained during the development of programs which search chess game trees. Over the past decade major enhancements to the alphabeta algorithm have been developed by people building gameplaying programs, and many of these methods will be surveyed and compared here. The balance of the paper contains a study of contemporary methods for searching chess game trees in parallel, using an arbitrary number of independent processors. To make efficient use of these processors, one must have a clear understanding of the basic properties of the trees actually traversed when alphabeta cutoffs occur. This paper provides such insights and concludes with a brief description of our own refinement to a standard parallel search algorithm for this problem.
Computer Go: an AI Oriented Survey
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2001
"... Since the beginning of AI, mind games have been studied as relevant application fields. Nowadays, some programs are better than human players in most classical games. Their results highlight the efficiency of AI methods that are now quite standard. Such methods are very useful to Go programs, bu ..."
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Cited by 78 (17 self)
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Since the beginning of AI, mind games have been studied as relevant application fields. Nowadays, some programs are better than human players in most classical games. Their results highlight the efficiency of AI methods that are now quite standard. Such methods are very useful to Go programs, but they do not enable a strong Go program to be built. The problems related to Computer Go require new AI problem solving methods. Given the great number of problems and the diversity of possible solutions, Computer Go is an attractive research domain for AI. Prospective methods of programming the game of Go will probably be of interest in other domains as well. The goal of this paper is to present Computer Go by showing the links between existing studies on Computer Go and different AI related domains: evaluation function, heuristic search, machine learning, automatic knowledge generation, mathematical morphology and cognitive science. In addition, this paper describes both the practical aspects of Go programming, such as program optimization, and various theoretical aspects such as combinatorial game theory, mathematical morphology, and MonteCarlo methods. B. Bouzy T. Cazenave page 2 08/06/01 1.
Enhanced IterativeDeepening Search
, 1993
"... Iterativedeepening searches mimic a breadthfirst node expansion with a series of depthfirst searches that operate with successively extended search horizons. They have been proposed as a simple way to reduce the space complexity of bestfirst searches like A* from exponential to linear in the sea ..."
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Cited by 70 (4 self)
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Iterativedeepening searches mimic a breadthfirst node expansion with a series of depthfirst searches that operate with successively extended search horizons. They have been proposed as a simple way to reduce the space complexity of bestfirst searches like A* from exponential to linear in the search depth. But there
A Review of GameTree Pruning
 Journal of the International Computer Chess Association
, 1986
"... Chess programs have three major components: move generation, search, and evaluation. All components are important, although evaluation with its quiescence analysis is the part which makes each program’s play unique. The speed of a chess program is a function of its move generation cost, the complexi ..."
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Cited by 62 (4 self)
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Chess programs have three major components: move generation, search, and evaluation. All components are important, although evaluation with its quiescence analysis is the part which makes each program’s play unique. The speed of a chess program is a function of its move generation cost, the complexity of the position under study and the brevity of its evaluation. More important, however, is the quality of the mechanisms used to discontinue (prune) search of unprofitable continuations. The most reliable pruning method in popular use is the robust alphabeta algorithm, and its many supporting aids. These essential parts of gametree searching and pruning are reviewed here, and the performance of refinements, such as aspiration and principal variation search, and aids like transposition and history tables are compared. †Much of this article is a revision of material condensed from an entry entitled
Bucket Hashing and its Application to Fast Message Authentication
, 1995
"... We introduce a new technique for constructing a family of universal hash functions. ..."
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Cited by 51 (4 self)
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We introduce a new technique for constructing a family of universal hash functions.
FloatingPoint Arithmetic And Message Authentication
, 2000
"... There is a wellknown class of message authentication systems guaranteeing that attackers will have a negligible chance of successfully forging a message. This paper shows how one of these systems can hash messages at extremely high speed  much more quickly than previous systems at the same securi ..."
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Cited by 28 (8 self)
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There is a wellknown class of message authentication systems guaranteeing that attackers will have a negligible chance of successfully forging a message. This paper shows how one of these systems can hash messages at extremely high speed  much more quickly than previous systems at the same security level  using IEEE floatingpoint arithmetic. This paper also presents a survey of the literature in a unified mathematical framework.
APHID: Asynchronous Parallel GameTree Search
, 1999
"... Most parallel gametree search approaches use synchronous methods, where the work is concentrated within a specific part of the tree, or at a given search depth. This article shows that asynchronous gametree search algorithms can be as efficient as or better than synchronous methods in determini ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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Most parallel gametree search approaches use synchronous methods, where the work is concentrated within a specific part of the tree, or at a given search depth. This article shows that asynchronous gametree search algorithms can be as efficient as or better than synchronous methods in determining the minimax value. APHID, a new asynchronous parallel gametree search algorithm, is presented. APHID is implemented as a freelyavailable portable library, making the algorithm easy to integrate into a sequential gametree searching program. APHID has been added to four programs written by different authors. APHID yields better speedups than synchronous search methods for an Othello and a checkers program, and comparable speedups on two chess programs.
Complete solution of the EightPuzzle and the benefit of nodeordering in IDA*
 PROCS. INT. JOINT CONF. ON AI, CHAMBERY, SAVOI
, 1993
"... The 8puzzle is the largest puzzle of its type that can be completely solved. It is simple, and yet obeys a combinatorially large problem space of 9!/2 states. The N x N extension of the 8puzzle is NPhard. In the first part of this paper, we present complete statistical data based on an exhaustive ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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The 8puzzle is the largest puzzle of its type that can be completely solved. It is simple, and yet obeys a combinatorially large problem space of 9!/2 states. The N x N extension of the 8puzzle is NPhard. In the first part of this paper, we present complete statistical data based on an exhaustive evaluation of all possible tile configurations. Our results include data on the expected solution lengths, the `easiest ' and `worst' configurations, and the density and distribution of solution nodes in the search tree. In our second set of experiments, we used the 8puzzle as a workbench model to evaluate the benefit of node ordering schemes in IterativeDeepening A* (IDA*. One highlight of our results is that almost all IDA* implementations perform worse than would be possible with a simple random ordering of the operators.
A Performance Analysis of TranspositionTableDriven Scheduling in Distributed Search
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 2002
"... This paper discusses a new workscheduling algorithm for parallel search of singleagent state spaces, called TranspositionTableDriven Work Scheduling, that places the transposition table at the heart of the parallel work scheduling. The scheme results in less synchronization overhead, less proce ..."
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Cited by 11 (6 self)
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This paper discusses a new workscheduling algorithm for parallel search of singleagent state spaces, called TranspositionTableDriven Work Scheduling, that places the transposition table at the heart of the parallel work scheduling. The scheme results in less synchronization overhead, less processor idle time, and less redundant search effort. Measurements on a 128processor parallel machine show that the scheme achieves closetolinear speedups; for large problems the speedups are even superlinear due to better memory usage. On the same machine, the algorithm is 1.6 to 12.9 times faster than traditional workstealingbased schemes.