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39
Neural NetworkBased Face Detection
 IEEE Transactions On Pattern Analysis and Machine intelligence
, 1998
"... Abstract—We present a neural networkbased upright frontal face detection system. A retinally connected neural network examines small windows of an image and decides whether each window contains a face. The system arbitrates between multiple networks to improve performance over a single network. We ..."
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Cited by 951 (23 self)
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Abstract—We present a neural networkbased upright frontal face detection system. A retinally connected neural network examines small windows of an image and decides whether each window contains a face. The system arbitrates between multiple networks to improve performance over a single network. We present a straightforward procedure for aligning positive face examples for training. To collect negative examples, we use a bootstrap algorithm, which adds false detections into the training set as training progresses. This eliminates the difficult task of manually selecting nonface training examples, which must be chosen to span the entire space of nonface images. Simple heuristics, such as using the fact that faces rarely overlap in images, can further improve the accuracy. Comparisons with several other stateoftheart face detection systems are presented, showing that our system has comparable performance in terms of detection and falsepositive rates. Index Terms—Face detection, pattern recognition, computer vision, artificial neural networks, machine learning.
Detecting faces in images: A survey
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2002
"... Images containing faces are essential to intelligent visionbased human computer interaction, and research efforts in face processing include face recognition, face tracking, pose estimation, and expression recognition. However, many reported methods assume that the faces in an image or an image se ..."
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Cited by 595 (4 self)
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Images containing faces are essential to intelligent visionbased human computer interaction, and research efforts in face processing include face recognition, face tracking, pose estimation, and expression recognition. However, many reported methods assume that the faces in an image or an image sequence have been identified and localized. To build fully automated systems that analyze the information contained in face images, robust and efficient face detection algorithms are required. Given a single image, the goal of face detection is to identify all image regions which contain a face regardless of its threedimensional position, orientation, and the lighting conditions. Such a problem is challenging because faces are nonrigid and have a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. Numerous techniques have been developed to detect faces in a single image, and the purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these algorithms. We also discuss relevant issues such as data collection, evaluation metrics, and benchmarking. After analyzing these algorithms and identifying their limitations, we conclude with several promising directions for future research.
Rotation invariant neural networkbased face detection
, 1998
"... In this paper, we present a neural networkbased face detection system. Unlike similar systems which are limited to detecting upright, frontal faces, this system detects faces at any degree of rotation in the image plane. The system employs multiple networks; a “router ” network first processes each ..."
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Cited by 177 (3 self)
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In this paper, we present a neural networkbased face detection system. Unlike similar systems which are limited to detecting upright, frontal faces, this system detects faces at any degree of rotation in the image plane. The system employs multiple networks; a “router ” network first processes each input window to determine its orientation and then uses this information to prepare the window for one or more “detector ” networks. We present the training methods for both types of networks. We also perform sensitivity analysis on the networks, and present empirical results on a large test set. Finally, we present preliminary results for detecting faces rotated out of the image plane, such as profiles and semiprofiles. 1.
Support vector machines: Training and applications
 A.I. MEMO 1602, MIT A. I. LAB
, 1997
"... The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a new and very promising classification technique developed by Vapnik and his group at AT&T Bell Laboratories [3, 6, 8, 24]. This new learning algorithm can be seen as an alternative training technique for Polynomial, Radial Basis Function and MultiLayer Perceptr ..."
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Cited by 177 (3 self)
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The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a new and very promising classification technique developed by Vapnik and his group at AT&T Bell Laboratories [3, 6, 8, 24]. This new learning algorithm can be seen as an alternative training technique for Polynomial, Radial Basis Function and MultiLayer Perceptron classifiers. The main idea behind the technique is to separate the classes with a surface that maximizes the margin between them. An interesting property of this approach is that it is an approximate implementation of the Structural Risk Minimization (SRM) induction principle [23]. The derivation of Support Vector Machines, its relationship with SRM, and its geometrical insight, are discussed in this paper. Since Structural Risk Minimization is an inductive principle that aims at minimizing a bound on the generalization error of a model, rather than minimizing the Mean Square Error over the data set (as Empirical Risk Minimization methods do), training a SVM to obtain the maximum margin classi er requires a different objective function. This objective function is then optimized by solving a largescale quadratic programming problem with linear and box constraints. The problem is considered challenging, because the quadratic form is completely dense, so the memory
Face Recognition with Support Vector Machines: Global versus Componentbased Approach
 In Proc. 8th International Conference on Computer Vision
, 2001
"... We present a componentbased method and two global methods for face recognition and evaluate them with respect to robustness against pose changes. In the component system we first locate facial components, extract them and combine them into a single feature vector which is classified by a Support Ve ..."
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Cited by 125 (18 self)
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We present a componentbased method and two global methods for face recognition and evaluate them with respect to robustness against pose changes. In the component system we first locate facial components, extract them and combine them into a single feature vector which is classified by a Support Vector Machine (SVM). The two global systems recognize faces by classifying a single feature vector consisting of the gray values of the whole face image. In the first global system we trained a single SVM classifier for each person in the database. The second system consists of sets of viewpointspecific SVM classifiers and involves clustering during training. We performed extensive tests on a database which included faces rotated up to about 40° in depth. The component system clearly outperformed both global systems on all tests.
Comparing Support Vector Machines with Gaussian Kernels to Radial Basis Function Classifiers
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING
, 1997
"... The Support Vector (SV) machine is a novel type of learning machine, based on statistical learning theory, which contains polynomial classifiers, neural networks, and radial basis function (RBF) networks as special cases. In the RBF case, the SV algorithm automatically determines centers, weights an ..."
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Cited by 125 (14 self)
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The Support Vector (SV) machine is a novel type of learning machine, based on statistical learning theory, which contains polynomial classifiers, neural networks, and radial basis function (RBF) networks as special cases. In the RBF case, the SV algorithm automatically determines centers, weights and threshold such as to minimize an upper bound on the expected test error. The present study is devoted to an experimental comparison of these machines with a classical approach, where the centers are determined by kmeans clustering and the weights are found using error backpropagation. We consider three machines, namely a classical RBF machine, an SV machine with Gaussian kernel, and a hybrid system with the centers determined by the SV method and the weights trained by error backpropagation. Our results show that on the US postal service database of handwritten digits, the SV machine achieves the highest test accuracy, followed by the hybrid approach. The SV approach is thus not only the...
Online learning for matrix factorization and sparse coding
"... Sparse coding—that is, modelling data vectors as sparse linear combinations of basis elements—is widely used in machine learning, neuroscience, signal processing, and statistics. This paper focuses on the largescale matrix factorization problem that consists of learning the basis set, adapting it t ..."
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Cited by 97 (18 self)
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Sparse coding—that is, modelling data vectors as sparse linear combinations of basis elements—is widely used in machine learning, neuroscience, signal processing, and statistics. This paper focuses on the largescale matrix factorization problem that consists of learning the basis set, adapting it to specific data. Variations of this problem include dictionary learning in signal processing, nonnegative matrix factorization and sparse principal component analysis. In this paper, we propose to address these tasks with a new online optimization algorithm, based on stochastic approximations, which scales up gracefully to large datasets with millions of training samples, and extends naturally to various matrix factorization formulations, making it suitable for a wide range of learning problems. A proof of convergence is presented, along with experiments with natural images and genomic data demonstrating that it leads to stateoftheart performance in terms of speed and optimization for both small and large datasets.
Everything Old Is New Again: A Fresh Look at Historical Approaches
 in Machine Learning. PhD thesis, MIT
, 2002
"... 2 Everything Old Is New Again: A Fresh Look at Historical ..."
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Cited by 88 (6 self)
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2 Everything Old Is New Again: A Fresh Look at Historical
Core vector machines: Fast SVM training on very large data sets
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2005
"... Standard SVM training has O(m 3) time and O(m 2) space complexities, where m is the training set size. It is thus computationally infeasible on very large data sets. By observing that practical SVM implementations only approximate the optimal solution by an iterative strategy, we scale up kernel met ..."
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Cited by 81 (13 self)
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Standard SVM training has O(m 3) time and O(m 2) space complexities, where m is the training set size. It is thus computationally infeasible on very large data sets. By observing that practical SVM implementations only approximate the optimal solution by an iterative strategy, we scale up kernel methods by exploiting such “approximateness ” in this paper. We first show that many kernel methods can be equivalently formulated as minimum enclosing ball (MEB) problems in computational geometry. Then, by adopting an efficient approximate MEB algorithm, we obtain provably approximately optimal solutions with the idea of core sets. Our proposed Core Vector Machine (CVM) algorithm can be used with nonlinear kernels and has a time complexity that is linear in m and a space complexity that is independent of m. Experiments on large toy and realworld data sets demonstrate that the CVM is as accurate as existing SVM implementations, but is much faster and can handle much larger data sets than existing scaleup methods. For example, CVM with the Gaussian kernel produces superior results on the KDDCUP99 intrusion detection data, which has about five million training patterns, in only 1.4 seconds on a 3.2GHz Pentium–4 PC.
Componentbased Face Detection
, 2001
"... We present a componentbased, trainable system for detecting frontal and nearfrontal views of faces in still gray images. The system consists of a twolevel hierarchy of Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers. On the first level, component classifiers independently detect components of a face. On ..."
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Cited by 80 (15 self)
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We present a componentbased, trainable system for detecting frontal and nearfrontal views of faces in still gray images. The system consists of a twolevel hierarchy of Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers. On the first level, component classifiers independently detect components of a face. On the second level, a single classifier checks if the geometrical configuration of the detected components in the image matches a geometrical model of a face. We propose a method for automatically learning components by using 3D head models. This approach has the advantage that no manual interaction is required for choosing and extracting components. Experiments show that the componentbased system is significantly more robust against rotations in depth than a comparable system trained on whole face patterns.