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272
Geodesic Active Contours
, 1997
"... A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both in ..."
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Cited by 1143 (44 self)
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A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both interior and exterior boundaries. The proposed approach is based on the relation between active contours and the computation of geodesics or minimal distance curves. The minimal distance curve lays in a Riemannian space whose metric is defined by the image content. This geodesic approach for object segmentation allows to connect classical "snakes" based on energy minimization and geometric active contours based on the theory of curve evolution. Previous models of geometric active contours are improved, allowing stable boundary detection when their gradients suffer from large variations, including gaps. Formal results concerning existence, uniqueness, stability, and correctness of the evolution are presented as well. The scheme was implemented using an efficient algorithm for curve evolution. Experimental results of applying the scheme to real images including objects with holes and medical data imagery demonstrate its power. The results may be extended to 3D object segmentation as well.
Motion of level sets by mean curvature
 II, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc
"... We construct a unique weak solution of the nonlinear PDE which asserts each level set evolves in time according to its mean curvature. This weak solution allows us then to define for any compact set Γ o a unique generalized motion by mean curvature, existing for all time. We investigate the various ..."
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Cited by 322 (6 self)
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We construct a unique weak solution of the nonlinear PDE which asserts each level set evolves in time according to its mean curvature. This weak solution allows us then to define for any compact set Γ o a unique generalized motion by mean curvature, existing for all time. We investigate the various geometric properties and pathologies of this evolution. 1.
Uniqueness and existence of viscosity solutions of generalized mean curvature flow equations
 Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 65
, 1989
"... This paper treats degenerate parabolic equations of second order (1.1) u t + F{Vu, V 2 w) = 0 ..."
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Cited by 260 (3 self)
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This paper treats degenerate parabolic equations of second order (1.1) u t + F{Vu, V 2 w) = 0
Gradient flows and geometric active contour models
 in Proc. of the 5th International Conference on Computer Vision
, 1995
"... In this paper, we analyze the geometric active contour models discussed in [6, 181 from a curve evolution point of view and propose some modifications based on gradient flows relative to certain new featurebased Riemannian metrics. This leads to a novel snake paradigm in which the feature of interes ..."
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Cited by 213 (17 self)
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In this paper, we analyze the geometric active contour models discussed in [6, 181 from a curve evolution point of view and propose some modifications based on gradient flows relative to certain new featurebased Riemannian metrics. This leads to a novel snake paradigm in which the feature of interest may be considered to lie at the bottom of a potential well. Thus the snake is attracted very naturally and eficiently to the desired feature. Moreover, we consider some 30 active surface models based on these ideas. 1
Variational principles, Surface Evolution, PDE's, level set methods and the Stereo Problem
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING
, 1999
"... We present a novel geometric approach for solving the stereo problem for an arbitrary number of images (greater than or equal to 2). It is based upon the denition of a variational principle that must be satisfied by the surfaces of the objects in the scene and their images. The EulerLagrange equati ..."
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Cited by 201 (22 self)
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We present a novel geometric approach for solving the stereo problem for an arbitrary number of images (greater than or equal to 2). It is based upon the denition of a variational principle that must be satisfied by the surfaces of the objects in the scene and their images. The EulerLagrange equations which are deduced from the variational principle provide a set of PDE's which are used to deform an initial set of surfaces which then move towards the objects to be detected. The level set implementation of these PDE's potentially provides an efficient and robust way of achieving the surface evolution and to deal automatically with changes in the surface topology during the deformation, i.e. to deal with multiple objects. Results of an implementation of our theory also dealing with occlusion and vibility are presented on synthetic and real images.
A geometric snake model for segmentation of medical imagery
 IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
, 1997
"... Abstract — In this note, we employ the new geometric active contour models formulated in [25] and [26] for edge detection and segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound medical imagery. Our method is based on defining featurebased metrics on a given i ..."
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Cited by 128 (18 self)
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Abstract — In this note, we employ the new geometric active contour models formulated in [25] and [26] for edge detection and segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound medical imagery. Our method is based on defining featurebased metrics on a given image which in turn leads to a novel snake paradigm in which the feature of interest may be considered to lie at the bottom of a potential well. Thus, the snake is attracted very quickly and efficiently to the desired feature. Index Terms — Active contours, active vision, edge detection, gradient flows, segmentation, snakes. I.
Conformal Curvature Flows: From Phase Transitions to Active Vision
, 1995
"... In this paper, we analyze geometric active contour models from a curve evolution point of view and propose some modifications based on gradient flows relative to certain new featurebased Riemannian metrics. This leads to a novel edgedetection paradigm in which the feature of interest may be consid ..."
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Cited by 126 (32 self)
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In this paper, we analyze geometric active contour models from a curve evolution point of view and propose some modifications based on gradient flows relative to certain new featurebased Riemannian metrics. This leads to a novel edgedetection paradigm in which the feature of interest may be considered to lie at the bottom of a potential well. Thus an edgeseeking curve is attracted very naturally and efficiently to the desired feature. Comparison with the AllenCahn model clarifies some of the choices made in these models, and suggests inhomogeneous models which may in return be useful in phase transitions. We also consider some 3D active surface models based on these ideas. The justification of this model rests on the careful study of the viscosity solutions of evolution equations derived from a levelset approach. Key words: Active vision, antiphase boundary, visual tracking, edge detection, segmentation, gradient flows, Riemannian metrics, viscosity solutions, geometric heat equ...
Complete Dense Stereovision using Level Set Methods
 in Proc. 5th European Conf. on Computer Vision
, 1998
"... We present a novel geometric approach for solving the stereo problem for an arbitrary number of images (greater than or equal to 2). It is based upon the denition of a variational principle that must be satised by the surfaces of the objects in the scene and their images. The EulerLagrange equation ..."
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Cited by 109 (2 self)
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We present a novel geometric approach for solving the stereo problem for an arbitrary number of images (greater than or equal to 2). It is based upon the denition of a variational principle that must be satised by the surfaces of the objects in the scene and their images. The EulerLagrange equations which are deduced from the variational principle provide a set of PDE's which are used to deform an initial set of surfaces which then move towards the objects to be detected. The level set implementation of these PDE's potentially provides an efficient and robust way of achieving the surface evolution and to deal automatically with changes in the surface topology during the deformation, i.e. to deal with multiple objects. Results of an implementation of our theory also dealing with occlusion and vibility are presented on synthetic and real images.
Flux Maximizing Geometric Flows
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2001
"... Several geometric active contour models have been proposed for segmentation in computer vision and image analysis. The essential idea is to evolve a curve (in 2D) or a surface (in 3D) under constraints from image forces so that it clings to features of interest in an intensity image. Recent variatio ..."
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Cited by 107 (7 self)
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Several geometric active contour models have been proposed for segmentation in computer vision and image analysis. The essential idea is to evolve a curve (in 2D) or a surface (in 3D) under constraints from image forces so that it clings to features of interest in an intensity image. Recent variations on this theme take into account properties of enclosed regions and allow for multiple curves or surfaces to be simultaneously represented. However, it is still unclear how to apply these techniques to images of narrow elongated structures, such as blood vessels, where intensity contrast may be low and reliable region statistics cannot be computed. To address this problem we derive the gradient flows which maximize the rate of increase of flux of an appropriate vector field through a curve (in 2D) or a surface (in 3D). The key idea is to exploit the direction of the vector field along with its magnitude. The calculations lead to a simple and elegant interpretation which is essentially parameter free and has the same form in both dimensions. We illustrate its advantages with several levelset based segmentations of 2D and 3D angiography images of blood vessels.
Reconciling Distance Functions and Level Sets
 Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
, 1999
"... This paper is concerned with the simulation of the Partial Differential Equation (PDE) driven evolution of a closed surface by means of an implicit representation. In most applications, the natural choice for the implicit representation is the signed distance function to the closed surface. Osher an ..."
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Cited by 80 (8 self)
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This paper is concerned with the simulation of the Partial Differential Equation (PDE) driven evolution of a closed surface by means of an implicit representation. In most applications, the natural choice for the implicit representation is the signed distance function to the closed surface. Osher and Sethian propose to evolve the distance function with a HamiltonJacobi equation. Unfortunately the solution to this equation is not a distance function. As a consequence, the practical application of the level set method is plagued with such questions as when do we have to "reinitialize" the distance function? How do we "reinitialize" the distance function? Etc... which reveal a disagreement between the theory and its implementation. This paper proposes an alternative to the use of HamiltonJacobi equations which eliminates this contradiction: in our method the implicit representation always remains a distance function by construction, and the implementation does not differ from the theory...