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Binary Decision Diagrams and Beyond: Enabling Technologies for Formal Verification
, 2006
"... Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) have found ..."
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Cited by 124 (0 self)
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Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) have found
Verification of Arithmetic Functions with Binary Moment Diagrams
 IN DESIGN AUTOMATION CONF
, 1994
"... Binary Moment Diagrams (BMDs) provide a canonical representations for linear functions similar to the way Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) represent Boolean functions. Within the class of linear functions, we can embed arbitary functions from Boolean variables to real, rational, or integer values. BM ..."
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Cited by 110 (6 self)
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Binary Moment Diagrams (BMDs) provide a canonical representations for linear functions similar to the way Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) represent Boolean functions. Within the class of linear functions, we can embed arbitary functions from Boolean variables to real, rational, or integer values. BMDs can thus model the functionality of data path circuits operating over word level data. Many important functions, including integer multiplication, that cannot be represented efficiently at the bit level with BDDs have simple representations at the word level with BMDs. Furthermore, BMDs can represent Boolean functions with around the same complexity as BDDs. We propose
Formal verification in hardware design: A survey
, 1997
"... In recent years, formal methods have emerged as an alternative approach to ensuring the quality and correctness of hardware designs, overcoming some of the limitations of traditional validation techniques such as simulation and testing. There are two main aspects to the application of formal methods ..."
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Cited by 110 (0 self)
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In recent years, formal methods have emerged as an alternative approach to ensuring the quality and correctness of hardware designs, overcoming some of the limitations of traditional validation techniques such as simulation and testing. There are two main aspects to the application of formal methods in a design process: The formal framework used to specify desired properties of a design, and the verification techniques and tools used to reason about the relationship between a specification and a corresponding implementation. We survey a variety of frameworks and techniques which have been proposed in the literature and applied to actual designs. The specification frameworks we describe include temporal logics, predicate logic, abstraction and refinement, as well as containment between!regular languages. The verification techniques presented include model checking, automatatheoretic techniques, automated theorem proving, and approaches that integrate the above methods.
Verification of Arithmetic Circuits with Binary Moment Diagrams
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 32ND ACM/IEEE DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE
, 1995
"... Binary Moment Diagrams (BMDs) provide a canonical representations for linear functions similar to the way Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) represent Boolean functions. Within the class of linear functions, we can embed arbitrary functions from Boolean variables to integer values. BMDs can thus model ..."
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Cited by 108 (10 self)
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Binary Moment Diagrams (BMDs) provide a canonical representations for linear functions similar to the way Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) represent Boolean functions. Within the class of linear functions, we can embed arbitrary functions from Boolean variables to integer values. BMDs can thus model the functionality of data path circuits operating over wordlevel data. Many important functions, including integer multiplication, that cannot be represented efficiently at the bit level with BDDs have simple representations at the word level with BMDs. Furthermore, BMDs can represent Boolean functions with around the same complexity as BDDs. We propose a hierarchical approach to verifying arithmetic circuits, wherecomponentmodulesare first shownto implement their wordlevel specifications. The overall circuit functionality is then verified by composing the component functions and comparing the result to the wordlevel circuit specification. Multipliers with word sizes of up to 256 bits hav...
Symmetry Detection and Dynamic Variable Ordering of Decision Diagrams
, 1996
"... Knowing that some variables are symmetric in a function has numerous applications; in particular, it can help produce better variable orders for Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) and related data structures (e.g., Algebraic Decision Diagrams). It has been observed that there often exists an optimum ..."
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Cited by 65 (2 self)
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Knowing that some variables are symmetric in a function has numerous applications; in particular, it can help produce better variable orders for Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) and related data structures (e.g., Algebraic Decision Diagrams). It has been observed that there often exists an optimum order for a BDD wherein symmetric variables are contiguous. We propose a new algorithm for the detection of symmetries, based on dynamic reordering, and we study its interaction with the reordering algorithm itself. We show that combining sifting with an efficient symmetry check for contiguous variables results in the fastest symmetry detection algorithm reported to date and produces better variable orders for many BDDs. The overhead on the sifting algorithm is negligible. 1
Multi Terminal Binary Decision Diagrams to Represent and Analyse Continuous Time Markov Chains
, 1999
"... Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) have gained high attention in the context of design and verification of digital circuits. They have successfully been employed to encode very large state spaces in an efficient, symbolic way. Multi terminal BDDs (MTBDDs) are generalisations of BDDs from Boolean va ..."
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Cited by 62 (12 self)
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Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) have gained high attention in the context of design and verification of digital circuits. They have successfully been employed to encode very large state spaces in an efficient, symbolic way. Multi terminal BDDs (MTBDDs) are generalisations of BDDs from Boolean values to values of any finite domain. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of MTBDDs to the symbolic representation of continuous time Markov chains, derived from highlevel formalisms, such as queueing networks or process algebras. Based on this data structure, we discuss iterative solution algorithms to compute the steadystate probability vector that work in a completely symbolic way. We highlight a number of lessons learned, using a set of small examples.
EVBDDbased algorithms for integer linear programming, spectral transformation, and function decomposition
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERAIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS
, 1994
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Bisimulation Algorithms for Stochastic Process Algebras and their BDDbased Implementation
 In ARTS, LNCS 1601
, 1999
"... . Stochastic process algebras have been introduced in order to enable compositional performance analysis. The size of the state space is a limiting factor, especially if the system consists of many cooperating components. To fight state space explosion, various proposals for compositional aggregatio ..."
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Cited by 35 (13 self)
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. Stochastic process algebras have been introduced in order to enable compositional performance analysis. The size of the state space is a limiting factor, especially if the system consists of many cooperating components. To fight state space explosion, various proposals for compositional aggregation have been made. They rely on minimisation with respect to a congruence relation. This paper addresses the computational complexity of minimisation algorithms and explains how efficient, BDDbased data structures can be employed for this purpose. 1 Introduction Compositional application of stochastic process algebras (SPA) is particularly successful if the system structure can be exploited during Markov chain generation. For this purpose, congruence relations have been developed which justify minimisation of components without touching behavioural properties. Examples of such relations are strong equivalence [22], (strong and weak) Markovian bisimilarity [16] and extended Markovian bisimi...
Binary decision diagrams in theory and practice
, 2001
"... Decision diagrams (DDs) are the stateoftheart data structure in VLSI CAD and have been successfully applied in many other fields.DDs are widely used and are also integrated in commercial tools.This special section comprises six contributed articles on various aspects of the theory and application ..."
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Cited by 31 (6 self)
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Decision diagrams (DDs) are the stateoftheart data structure in VLSI CAD and have been successfully applied in many other fields.DDs are widely used and are also integrated in commercial tools.This special section comprises six contributed articles on various aspects of the theory and application of DDs.As preparation for these contributions, the present article reviews the basic definitions of binary decision diagrams (BDDs). We provide a brief overview and study theoretical and practical aspects.Basic properties of BDDs are discussed and manipulation algorithms are described.Extensions of BDDs are investigated and by this we give a deeper insight into the basic data structure.Finally we outline several applications of BDDs and their extensions and suggest a number of articles and books for those who wish to pursue the topic in more depth.
On the Relation Between BDDs and FDDs
 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION
, 1995
"... Data structures for Boolean functions build an essential component of design automation tools, especially in the area of logic synthesis. The state of the art data structure is the ordered binary decision diagram (OBDD), which results from general binary decision diagrams (BDDs), also called bran ..."
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Cited by 30 (13 self)
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Data structures for Boolean functions build an essential component of design automation tools, especially in the area of logic synthesis. The state of the art data structure is the ordered binary decision diagram (OBDD), which results from general binary decision diagrams (BDDs), also called branching programs, by ordering restrictions. In the context of EXORbased logic synthesis another type of decision diagram (DD), called (ordered) functional decision diagram ((O)FDD) becomes increasingly important. We study the relation between (ordered, free) BDDs and FDDs. Both, BDDs and FDDs, result from DDs by defining the represented function in different ways. If the underlying DD is complete, the relation between both types of interpretation can be described by a Boolean transformation . This allows us to relate the FDDsize of f and the BDDsize of (f) also in the case that the corresponding DDs are free or ordered, but not (necessarily) complete. We use this property to derive...