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A Framework for Dynamic Graph Drawing
 CONGRESSUS NUMERANTIUM
, 1992
"... Drawing graphs is an important problem that combines flavors of computational geometry and graph theory. Applications can be found in a variety of areas including circuit layout, network management, software engineering, and graphics. The main contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows ..."
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Cited by 516 (40 self)
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Drawing graphs is an important problem that combines flavors of computational geometry and graph theory. Applications can be found in a variety of areas including circuit layout, network management, software engineering, and graphics. The main contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows: ffl We devise a model for dynamic graph algorithms, based on performing queries and updates on an implicit representation of the drawing, and we show its applications. ffl We present several efficient dynamic drawing algorithms for trees, seriesparallel digraphs, planar stdigraphs, and planar graphs. These algorithms adopt a variety of representations (e.g., straightline, polyline, visibility), and update the drawing in a smooth way.
Evaluating stereo and motion cues for visualizing information nets in three dimensions
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1996
"... This article concerns the benefits of presenting abstract data in 3D. Two experiments show that motion cues combined with stereo viewing can substantially increase the size of tbe graph that can be perceived. The first experiment was designed to provide quantitative measurements of how much more (or ..."
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Cited by 124 (6 self)
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This article concerns the benefits of presenting abstract data in 3D. Two experiments show that motion cues combined with stereo viewing can substantially increase the size of tbe graph that can be perceived. The first experiment was designed to provide quantitative measurements of how much more (or less) can be understood in 3D than in 2D. Tbe 3D display used was configured so that the image on the monitor was coupled to the user’s actual eye positions (and it was updated in realtime as the user moved) as well as being in stereo. Thus the effect was like a local “virtual reality ” display located in the vicinity of the computer monitor. The results from this study show that headcoupled stereo viewing can increase the size of an abstract graph that can be understood by a factor of three; using stereo alone provided an increase by a factor of 1.6 and bead coupling alone produced an increase by a factor of 2.2, Tbe second experiment examined a variety of motion cues provided by headcoupled perspective (as in virtual reality displays), handguided motion and automatic rotation, respectively, both with and without stereo in each case. The results show that structured 3D motion and stereo viewing both help in understanding, but that the kind of motion is not particularly important; all improve performance, and all are more significant than stereo cues. These results provide strong reasons for using advanced 3D graphics for interacting with a large variety of information structures.
StraightLine Drawing Algorithms for Hierarchical Graphs and Clustered Graphs
 Algorithmica
, 1999
"... Hierarchical graphs and clustered graphs are useful nonclassical graph models for structured relational information. Hierarchical graphs are graphs with layering structures; clustered graphs are graphs with recursive clustering structures. Both have applications in CASE tools, software visualizatio ..."
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Cited by 58 (12 self)
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Hierarchical graphs and clustered graphs are useful nonclassical graph models for structured relational information. Hierarchical graphs are graphs with layering structures; clustered graphs are graphs with recursive clustering structures. Both have applications in CASE tools, software visualization, and VLSI design. Drawing algorithms for hierarchical graphs have been well investigated. However, the problem of straightline representation has not been solved completely. In this paper, we answer the question: does every planar hierarchical graph admit a planar straightline hierarchical drawing? We present an algorithm that constructs such drawings in linear time. Also, we answer a basic question for clustered graphs, that is, does every planar clustered graph admit a planar straightline drawing with clusters drawn as convex polygons? We provide a method for such drawings based on our algorithm for hierarchical graphs.
A Graph Layout Algorithm for Drawing Metabolic Pathways
 Bioinformatics
, 2001
"... Motivation: A large amount of data on metabolic pathways is available in databases. The ability to visualise the complex data dynamically would be useful for building more powerful research tools to access the databases. Metabolic pathways are typically modelled as graphs in which nodes represent ch ..."
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Cited by 54 (0 self)
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Motivation: A large amount of data on metabolic pathways is available in databases. The ability to visualise the complex data dynamically would be useful for building more powerful research tools to access the databases. Metabolic pathways are typically modelled as graphs in which nodes represent chemical compounds, and edges represent chemical reactions between compounds. Thus, the problem of visualising pathways can be formulated as a graph layout problem. Currently available visual interfaces to biochemical databases either use static images or cannot cope well with more complex, nonstandard pathways.
Communicating Centrality in Policy Network Drawings
, 2003
"... We introduce a network visualization technique that supports an analytical method applied in the social sciences. Policy network analysis is an approach to study policy making structures, processes, and outcomes, thereby concentrating on relations between policy actors. An important operational co ..."
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Cited by 33 (10 self)
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We introduce a network visualization technique that supports an analytical method applied in the social sciences. Policy network analysis is an approach to study policy making structures, processes, and outcomes, thereby concentrating on relations between policy actors. An important operational concept for the analysis of policy networks is the notion of centrality, i.e., the distinction of actors according to their importance in a relational structure. We integrate this measure in a layout model for networks by mapping structural to geometric centrality. Thus, centrality values and network data can be presented simultaneously and explored interactively.
Visualizing Related Metabolic Pathways in Two and a Half Dimensions
, 2003
"... We propose a method for visualizing a set of related metabolic pathways using 2 2 D graph drawing. Interdependent, twodimensional layouts of each pathway are stacked on top of each other so that biologists get a full picture of subtle and significant di#erences among the pathways. Layouts are ..."
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Cited by 26 (7 self)
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We propose a method for visualizing a set of related metabolic pathways using 2 2 D graph drawing. Interdependent, twodimensional layouts of each pathway are stacked on top of each other so that biologists get a full picture of subtle and significant di#erences among the pathways. Layouts are determined by a global layout of the union of all pathwayrepresenting graphs using a variant of the proven Sugiyama approach for layered graph drawing that allows edges to cross if they appear in di#erent graphs.
Algorithms for Drawing Clustered Graphs
, 1997
"... In the mid 1980s, graphics workstations became the main platforms for software and information engineers. Since then, visualization of relational information has become an essential element of software systems. Graphs are commonly used to model relational information. They are depicted on a graphics ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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In the mid 1980s, graphics workstations became the main platforms for software and information engineers. Since then, visualization of relational information has become an essential element of software systems. Graphs are commonly used to model relational information. They are depicted on a graphics workstation as graph drawings. The usefulness of the relational model depends on whether the graph drawings effectively convey the relational information to the users. This thesis is concerned with finding good drawings of graphs. As the amount of information that we want to visualize becomes larger and the relations become more complex, the classical graph model tends to be inadequate. Many extended models use a node hierarchy to help cope with the complexity. This thesis introduces a new graph model called the clustered graph. The central theme of the thesis is an investigation of efficient algorithms to produce good drawings for clustered graphs. Although the criteria for judging the qua...
A Practical Approach to Drawing Undirected Graphs
, 1994
"... Although there is extensive research on drawing graphs, none of the published methods are satisfactory for drawing general undirected graphs. Generating drawings which are optimal with respect to several aesthetic criteria is known to be NPhard, so all published approaches to the problem have used ..."
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Cited by 21 (2 self)
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Although there is extensive research on drawing graphs, none of the published methods are satisfactory for drawing general undirected graphs. Generating drawings which are optimal with respect to several aesthetic criteria is known to be NPhard, so all published approaches to the problem have used heuristics. These heuristics are too slow to be practical for graphs of moderate size, and they do not produce consistently good drawings for general graphs. Moreover, they rely on general optimization methods, because problemspecific methods require a deeper theoretical understanding of the graph drawing problem. This paper presents an algorithm to generate twodimensional drawings of undirected graphs. The algorithm uses a combination of heuristics to obtain drawings which are nearoptimal with respect to an aesthetic cost function. The algorithm is incremental in nature, but preprocesses the graph to determine an order for node placement. The algorithm uses a local optimization strategy...
Graph Layout Aesthetics in UML Diagrams: User Preferences
 J. Graph Algorithms Appl
, 2002
"... The merit of automatic graph layout algorithms is typically judged by their computational efficiency and the extent to which they conform to aesthetic criteria (for example, minimising the number of crossings, maximising orthogonality). Experiments investigating the worth of such algorithms from the ..."
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Cited by 20 (0 self)
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The merit of automatic graph layout algorithms is typically judged by their computational efficiency and the extent to which they conform to aesthetic criteria (for example, minimising the number of crossings, maximising orthogonality). Experiments investigating the worth of such algorithms from the point of view of human usability can take different forms, depending on whether the graph has meaning in the real world, the nature of the usability measurement, and the effect being investigated (algorithms or aesthetics). Previous studies have investigated performance on abstract graphs with respect to both aesthetics and algorithms, finding support for reducing the number of crossings and bends, and increasing the display of symmetry. This paper reports on preference experiments assessing the effect of individual aesthetics in the application domain of UML diagrams. Subjects’ preferences for one diagram over another were collected as quantitative data. Their stated reasons for their choice were collected as qualitative data. Analysis of this data enabled us to produce a priority listing of aesthetics for this domain. These UML preference results reveal a difference in aesthetic priority from those of previous domainindependent experiments.
A Numerical Optimization Approach to General Graph Drawing
, 1999
"... Graphs are ubiquitous, finding applications in domains ranging from software engineering to computational biology. While graph theory and graph algorithms are some of the oldest, most studied fields in computer science, the problem of visualizing graphs is comparatively young. This problem, known as ..."
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Cited by 19 (0 self)
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Graphs are ubiquitous, finding applications in domains ranging from software engineering to computational biology. While graph theory and graph algorithms are some of the oldest, most studied fields in computer science, the problem of visualizing graphs is comparatively young. This problem, known as graph drawing, is that of transforming combinatorial graphs into geometric drawings for the purpose of visualization. Most published algorithms for drawing general graphs model the drawing problem with a physical analogy, representing a graph as a system of springs and other physical elements and then simulating the relaxation of this physical system. Solving the graph drawing problem involves both choosing a physical model and then using numerical optimization to simulate the physical system. In this