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An overview and synthesis on timed process algebras
, 1991
"... We present anoverview and synthesis of existing results about process algebras for the speci cation and analysis of timed systems. The motivation is double: present anoverview of some relevant and representative approaches and suggest a unifying framework for them. time, we propose a general model f ..."
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Cited by 158 (4 self)
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We present anoverview and synthesis of existing results about process algebras for the speci cation and analysis of timed systems. The motivation is double: present anoverview of some relevant and representative approaches and suggest a unifying framework for them. time, we propose a general model for them: transition systems whose labels are either elements ofavocabulary of actions or elements of a time domain. Many properties of this model are studied concerning their impact on description capabilities and on realisability issues. An overview of the language features of the process algebras considered is presented, by focusing on constructs used to express time constraints. The presentation is organised as an exercise of building a timed process algebra from a standard process algebra for untimed systems. The overview is completed by a discussion about description capabilities according to semantic and pragmatic criteria. 1
General Decidability Theorems for InfiniteState Systems
, 1996
"... ) Parosh Aziz Abdulla Uppsala University K¯arlis Cer¯ans University of Latvia Bengt Jonsson Uppsala University YihKuen Tsay National Taiwan University Abstract Over the last few years there has been an increasing research effort directed towards the automatic verification of infinite state sys ..."
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Cited by 128 (18 self)
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) Parosh Aziz Abdulla Uppsala University K¯arlis Cer¯ans University of Latvia Bengt Jonsson Uppsala University YihKuen Tsay National Taiwan University Abstract Over the last few years there has been an increasing research effort directed towards the automatic verification of infinite state systems. For different classes of such systems (e.g., hybrid automata, dataindependent systems, relational automata, Petri nets, and lossy channel systems) this research has resulted in numerous highly nontrivial algorithms. As the interest in this area increases, it will be important to extract common principles that underly these and related results. This paper is concerned with identifying general mathematical structures which could serve as sufficient conditions for achieving decidability. We present decidability results for systems which consist of a finite control part operating on an infinite data domain. The data domain is equipped with a wellordered and wellfounded preorder such tha...
A tutorial on EMPA: A theory of concurrent processes with nondeterminism, priorities, probabilities and time
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1998
"... In this tutorial we give an overview of the process algebra EMPA, a calculus devised in order to model and analyze features of realworld concurrent systems such as nondeterminism, priorities, probabilities and time, with a particular emphasis on performance evaluation. The purpose of this tutorial ..."
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Cited by 112 (11 self)
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In this tutorial we give an overview of the process algebra EMPA, a calculus devised in order to model and analyze features of realworld concurrent systems such as nondeterminism, priorities, probabilities and time, with a particular emphasis on performance evaluation. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the design choices behind the development of EMPA and how the four features above interact, and to show that a reasonable trade off between the expressive power of the calculus and the complexity of its underlying theory has been achieved.
From ATP to Timed Graphs and Hybrid Systems
, 1993
"... The paper presents results of ongoing work aiming at the unification of some behavioral description formalisms for timed systems. We propose for the algebra of timed processes ATP a very general semantics in terms of a time domain. It is then shown how ATP can be translated into a variant of timed g ..."
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Cited by 86 (9 self)
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The paper presents results of ongoing work aiming at the unification of some behavioral description formalisms for timed systems. We propose for the algebra of timed processes ATP a very general semantics in terms of a time domain. It is then shown how ATP can be translated into a variant of timed graphs. This result allows the application of existing modelchecking techniques to ATP. Finally, we propose a notion of hybrid systems as a generalization of timed graphs. Such systems can evolve, either by executing a discrete transition, or by performing some "continuous " transformation. The formalisms studied admit the same class of models: time deterministic and time continuous, possibly infinitely branching transition systems labeled by actions or durations.
A Process Algebraic Approach to the Specification and Analysis of ResourceBound RealTime Systems
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 1994
"... Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of timed process algebras for the specification and analysis of realtime systems. This paper describes a timed process algebra called ACSR, which supports synchronous timed actions and asynchronous instantaneous events. Timed actions a ..."
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Cited by 66 (44 self)
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Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of timed process algebras for the specification and analysis of realtime systems. This paper describes a timed process algebra called ACSR, which supports synchronous timed actions and asynchronous instantaneous events. Timed actions are used to represent the usage of resources and to model the passage of time. Events are used to capture synchronization between processes. To be able to specify real systems accurately, ACSR supports a notion of priority that can be used to arbitrate among timed actions competing for the use of resources and among events that are ready for synchronization. The paper also includes a brief overview of other timed process algebras and discusses similarities and differences between them and ACSR.
Undecidable Verification Problems for Programs with Unreliable Channels
 Information and Computation
, 1994
"... We consider the verification of a particular class of infinitestate systems, namely systems consisting of finitestate processes that communicate via unbounded lossy FIFO channels. This class is able to model e.g. link protocols such as the Alternating Bit Protocol and HDLC. In an earlier paper, we ..."
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Cited by 59 (11 self)
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We consider the verification of a particular class of infinitestate systems, namely systems consisting of finitestate processes that communicate via unbounded lossy FIFO channels. This class is able to model e.g. link protocols such as the Alternating Bit Protocol and HDLC. In an earlier paper, we showed that the problems of checking reachability, safety properties, and eventuality properties are decidable for this class of systems. In this paper, we show that the following problems are undecidable, namely ffl The model checking problem in propositional temporal logics such as Propositional Linear Time Temporal Logic (PTL) and Computation Tree Logic (CTL). ffl The problem of deciding eventuality properties with fair channels: do all computations eventually reach a given set of states if the unreliable channels satisfy fairness assumptions. The results are obtained through a reduction from a variant of Post's Correspondence Problem. This research report is a revised and extended ...
Process Algebra for Discrete Event Simulation
 In Quantitative Methods in Parallel Systems
, 1993
"... We present a process algebra or programming language, based on CCS, which may be used to describe discrete event simulations with parallelism. It has extensions to describe the passing of time and probabilistic choice, either discrete, between a countable number of processes, or continuous to choose ..."
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Cited by 54 (3 self)
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We present a process algebra or programming language, based on CCS, which may be used to describe discrete event simulations with parallelism. It has extensions to describe the passing of time and probabilistic choice, either discrete, between a countable number of processes, or continuous to choose a random amount of time to wait. It has a clear operational semantics and we give approaches to denotational semantics given in terms of an algebra of equivalences over processes. It raises questions about when two simulations are equivalent and what we mean by nondeterminism in the context of the specification of a simulation. It also exemplifies some current approaches to adding time and probability to process algebras. 1 Introduction Imagine we wish to simulate the behaviour of a complex system with computerised components, such as a telephone network. First, let us look at the implementation of such a complex system. When it is implemented, typically work will start with some type of ...
VERSA: A Tool for the Specification and Analysis of ResourceBound RealTime Systems
 Journal of Computer and Software Engineering
, 1995
"... VERSA is a tool that assists in the algebraic analysis of realtime systems. It is based on ACSR, a timed process algebra designed to express resourcebound realtime distributed systems. VERSA is designed to be both a usable and useful tool for the analysis of ACSR specifications. Usability is a ..."
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Cited by 36 (26 self)
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VERSA is a tool that assists in the algebraic analysis of realtime systems. It is based on ACSR, a timed process algebra designed to express resourcebound realtime distributed systems. VERSA is designed to be both a usable and useful tool for the analysis of ACSR specifications. Usability is assured by a flexible user interface that uses ACSR's traditional notation augmented with conventions from programming languages and mathematics that allow concise specification of realistic systems. Usefulness is the result of the breadth of analysis techniques planned and currently implemented, including algebraic term rewriting and statespace exploration based techniques. 1 Introduction Reliability in realtime systems can be improved through the use of formal methods for the specification and analysis of realtime systems. Formal methods treat system components as mathematical objects and provide mathematical models to describe and predict the observable properties and behaviors of...
Formal Methods for the Specification and Design of RealTime Safety Critical Systems
, 1992
"... Safety critical computers increasingly a#ect nearly every aspect of our lives. Computers control the planes we #y on, monitor our health in hospitals and do our work in hazardous environments. Computers with software de#ciencies that fail to meet stringent timing constraints have resulted in cat ..."
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Cited by 34 (0 self)
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Safety critical computers increasingly a#ect nearly every aspect of our lives. Computers control the planes we #y on, monitor our health in hospitals and do our work in hazardous environments. Computers with software de#ciencies that fail to meet stringent timing constraints have resulted in catastrophic failures. This paper surveys formal methods for specifying, designing and verifying realtime systems, so as to improve their safety and reliability. # To appear in Journal of Systems and Software,Vol. 18, Number 1, pages 33#60, April 1992. Jonathan Ostro# is with the Department of Computer Science, York University 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario, Canada, M3J 1P3. This work is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. 1 CONTENTS 2 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 De#ning the terms 6 2.1 Major issues that formal theories must address ::::::: 13 3 RealTime Programming Languages 14 4 Structured Methods and#or Graphical Languages 15 4.1 Str...
Timing and Causality in Process Algebra
 Acta Informatica
, 1992
"... . There has been considerable controversy in concurrency theory between the `interleaving' and `true concurrency' schools. The former school advocates associating a transition system with a process which captures concurrent execution via the interleaving of occurrences; the latter adopts m ..."
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Cited by 27 (0 self)
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. There has been considerable controversy in concurrency theory between the `interleaving' and `true concurrency' schools. The former school advocates associating a transition system with a process which captures concurrent execution via the interleaving of occurrences; the latter adopts more complex semantic structures to avoid reducing concurrency to interleaving. In this paper we show that the two approaches are not irreconcilable. We define a timed process algebra where occurrences are associated with intervals of time, and give it a transition system semantics. This semantics has many of the advantages of the interleaving approach; the algebra admits an expansion theorem, and bisimulation semantics can be used as usual. Our transition systems, however, incorporate timing information, and this enables us to express concurrency: merely adding timing appropriately generalises transition systems to asynchronous transition systems, showing that time gives a link between true concurrenc...