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19
Algebraic Operations and Generic Effects
 Applied Categorical Structures
, 2003
"... Given a complete and cocomplete symmetric monoidal closed category V and a symmetric monoidal Vcategory C with cotensors and a strong Vmonad T on C, we investigate axioms under which an ObCindexed family of operations of the form α_x : (Tx)^ν → (Tx)^ω provides ..."
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Cited by 45 (7 self)
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Given a complete and cocomplete symmetric monoidal closed category V and a symmetric monoidal Vcategory C with cotensors and a strong Vmonad T on C, we investigate axioms under which an ObCindexed family of operations of the form &alpha;_x : (Tx)^&nu; &rarr; (Tx)^&omega; provides semantics for algebraic operations on the computational &lambda;calculus. We recall a definition for which we have elsewhere given adequacy results, and we show that an enrichment of it is equivalent to a range of other possible natural definitions of algebraic operation. In particular, we define the notion of generic effect and show that to give a generic effect is equivalent to giving an algebraic operation. We further show how the usual monadic semantics of the computational &lambda;calculus extends uniformly to incorporate generic effects. We outline examples and nonexamples and we show that our definition also enriches one for callbyname languages with e#ects.
The Category Theoretic Understanding of Universal Algebra: Lawvere Theories and Monads
, 2007
"... Lawvere theories and monads have been the two main category theoretic formulations of universal algebra, Lawvere theories arising in 1963 and the connection with monads being established a few years later. Monads, although mathematically the less direct and less malleable formulation, rapidly gained ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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Lawvere theories and monads have been the two main category theoretic formulations of universal algebra, Lawvere theories arising in 1963 and the connection with monads being established a few years later. Monads, although mathematically the less direct and less malleable formulation, rapidly gained precedence. A generation later, the definition of monad began to appear extensively in theoretical computer science in order to model computational effects, without reference to universal algebra. But since then, the relevance of universal algebra to computational effects has been recognised, leading to renewed prominence of the notion of Lawvere theory, now in a computational setting. This development has formed a major part of Gordon Plotkin’s mature work, and we study its history here, in particular asking why Lawvere theories were eclipsed by monads in the 1960’s, and how the renewed interest in them in a computer science setting might develop in future.
Countable Lawvere Theories and Computational Effects
, 2006
"... Lawvere theories have been one of the two main category theoretic formulations of universal algebra, the other being monads. Monads have appeared extensively over the past fifteen years in the theoretical computer science literature, specifically in connection with computational effects, but Lawvere ..."
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Cited by 16 (3 self)
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Lawvere theories have been one of the two main category theoretic formulations of universal algebra, the other being monads. Monads have appeared extensively over the past fifteen years in the theoretical computer science literature, specifically in connection with computational effects, but Lawvere theories have not. So we define the notion of (countable) Lawvere theory and give a precise statement of its relationship with the notion of monad on the category Set. We illustrate with examples arising from the study of computational effects, explaining how the notion of Lawvere theory keeps one closer to computational practice. We then describe constructions that one can make with Lawvere theories, notably sum, tensor, and distributive tensor, reflecting the ways in which the various computational effects are usually combined, thus giving denotational semantics for the combinations.
Pseudodistributive laws
, 2004
"... We address the question of how elegantly to combine a number of different structures, such as finite product structure, monoidal structure, and colimiting structure, on a category. Extending work of Marmolejo and Lack, we develop the definition of a pseudodistributive law between pseudomonads, and ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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We address the question of how elegantly to combine a number of different structures, such as finite product structure, monoidal structure, and colimiting structure, on a category. Extending work of Marmolejo and Lack, we develop the definition of a pseudodistributive law between pseudomonads, and we show how the definition and the main theorems about it may be used to model several such structures simultaneously. Specifically, we address the relationship between pseudodistributive laws and the lifting of one pseudomonad to the 2category of algebras and to the Kleisli bicategory of another. This, for instance, sheds light on the preservation of some structures but not others along the Yoneda embedding. Our leading examples are given by the use of open maps to model bisimulation and by the logic of bunched implications.
Structured Formal Development in Isabelle
 NORDIC JOURNAL OF COMPUTING
, 2006
"... General purpose theorem provers provide advanced facilities for proving properties about specifications, and may therefore be a valuable tool in formal program development. However, these provers generally lack many of the useful structuring mechanisms found in functional programming or specificatio ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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General purpose theorem provers provide advanced facilities for proving properties about specifications, and may therefore be a valuable tool in formal program development. However, these provers generally lack many of the useful structuring mechanisms found in functional programming or specification languages. This paper presents a constructive approach to adding theory morphisms and parametrisation to theorem provers, while preserving the proof support and consistency of the prover. The approach is implemented in Isabelle and illustrated by examples of an algorithm design rule and of the modular development of computational effects for imperative language features based on monads.
Generic Models for Computational Effects
"... A Freydcategory is a subtle generalisation of the notion of a category with finite products. It is suitable for modelling environments in callbyvalue programming languages, such as the computational λcalculus, with computational effects. We develop the theory of Freydcategories with that in min ..."
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A Freydcategory is a subtle generalisation of the notion of a category with finite products. It is suitable for modelling environments in callbyvalue programming languages, such as the computational λcalculus, with computational effects. We develop the theory of Freydcategories with that in mind. We first show that any countable Lawvere theory, hence any signature of operations with countable arity subject to equations, directly generates a Freydcategory. We then give canonical, universal embeddings of Freydcategories into closed Freydcategories, characterised by being free cocompletions. The combination of the two constructions sends a signature of operations and equations to the Kleisli category for the monad on the category Set generated by it, thus refining the analysis of computational effects given by monads. That in turn allows a more structural analysis of the λccalculus. Our leading examples of signatures arise from sideeffects, interactive input/output and exceptions. We extend our analysis to an enriched setting in order to account for recursion and for computational effects and signatures that inherently involve it, such as partiality, nondeterminism and probabilistic nondeterminism. Key words: Freydcategory, enriched Yoneda embedding, conical colimit completion, canonical model
COPRODUCTS OF IDEAL MONADS
, 2004
"... The question of how to combine monads arises naturally in many areas with much recent interest focusing on the coproduct of two monads. In general, the coproduct of arbitrary monads does not always exist. Although a rather general construction was given by ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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The question of how to combine monads arises naturally in many areas with much recent interest focusing on the coproduct of two monads. In general, the coproduct of arbitrary monads does not always exist. Although a rather general construction was given by
Logic for Computational Effects: work in progress
"... We outline a possible logic that will allow us to give a unified approach to reasoning about computational effects. The logic is given by extending Moggi's computational *calculus by basic types and a signature, the latter given by constant symbols, function symbols, and operation symbols, a ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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We outline a possible logic that will allow us to give a unified approach to reasoning about computational effects. The logic is given by extending Moggi's computational *calculus by basic types and a signature, the latter given by constant symbols, function symbols, and operation symbols, and by including a _ operator. We give both syntax and semantics for the logic except for _. We consider a number of sound and complete classes of models, all given in categorytheoretic terms. We illustrate the ideas with some of our leading examples of computational effects, and we observe that operations give rise to natural modalities.
Languages, Theory
"... Recently there has been a great deal of interest in higherorder syntax which seeks to extend standard initial algebra semantics to cover languages with variable binding by using functor categories. The canonical example studied in the literature is that of the untyped λcalculus which is handled as ..."
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Recently there has been a great deal of interest in higherorder syntax which seeks to extend standard initial algebra semantics to cover languages with variable binding by using functor categories. The canonical example studied in the literature is that of the untyped λcalculus which is handled as an instance of the general theory of binding algebras, cf. Fiore, Plotkin, Turi [8]. Another important syntactic construction is that of explicit substitutions. The syntax of a language with explicit substitutions does not form a binding algebra as an explicit substitution may bind an arbitrary number of variables. Nevertheless we show that the language given by a standard signature Σ and explicit substitutions is naturally modelled as the initial algebra of the endofunctor Id + FΣ ◦ + ◦ on a functor category. We also comment on the apparent lack of modularity in syntax with variable binding as compared to firstorder languages. Categories and Subject Descriptors