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Experimental Quantum Cryptography
 Journal of Cryptology
, 1992
"... We describe results from an apparatus and protocol designed to implement quantum key distribution, by which two users, who share no secret information initially: 1) exchange a random quantum transmission, consisting of very faint flashes of polarized light; 2) by subsequent public discussion of the ..."
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Cited by 198 (20 self)
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We describe results from an apparatus and protocol designed to implement quantum key distribution, by which two users, who share no secret information initially: 1) exchange a random quantum transmission, consisting of very faint flashes of polarized light; 2) by subsequent public discussion of the sent and received versions of this transmission estimate the extent of eavesdropping that might have taken place on it, and finally 3) if this estimate is small enough, distill from the sent and received versions a smaller body of shared random information, which is certifiably secret in the sense that any third party's expected information on it is an exponentially small fraction of one bit. Because the system depends on the uncertainty principle of quantum physics, instead of usual mathematical assumptions such as the difficulty of factoring, it remains secure against an adversary with unlimited computing power. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at Eurocrypt '90, May 21 ...
A Quantum Bit Commitment Scheme Provably Unbreakable by both Parties
, 1993
"... Assume that a party, Alice, has a bit x in mind, to which she would like to be committed toward another party, Bob. That is, Alice wishes, through a procedure commit(x), to provide Bob with a piece of evidence that she has a bit x in mind and that she cannot change it. Meanwhile, Bob should not be ..."
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Cited by 68 (12 self)
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Assume that a party, Alice, has a bit x in mind, to which she would like to be committed toward another party, Bob. That is, Alice wishes, through a procedure commit(x), to provide Bob with a piece of evidence that she has a bit x in mind and that she cannot change it. Meanwhile, Bob should not be able to tell from that evidence what x is. At a later time, Alice can reveal, through a procedure unveil(x), the value of x and prove to Bob that the piece of evidence sent earlier really corresponded to that bit. Classical bit commitment schemes (by which Alice's piece of evidence is classical information such as a bit string) cannot be secure against unlimited computing power and none have been proven secure against algorithmic sophistication. Previous quantum bit commitment schemes (by which Alice's piece of evidence is quantum information such as a stream of polarized photons) were known to be invulnerable to unlimited computing power and algorithmic sophistication, but not to arbitrary...
Quantum communication
, 1995
"... 1 First, I would like to thank my advisor Noam Nisan. During the two years I have been working with Noam, he has been a most costructive in uence on me, teaching me how to think and write in a clear way. Iwould also liketothankmymyfellow students, who during this time had to su er hearing me lecturi ..."
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Cited by 63 (0 self)
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1 First, I would like to thank my advisor Noam Nisan. During the two years I have been working with Noam, he has been a most costructive in uence on me, teaching me how to think and write in a clear way. Iwould also liketothankmymyfellow students, who during this time had to su er hearing me lecturing my ideas � this goes especially to Amnon Tashma who hasn't recovered yet. My parents deserve a special thank, not only for getting me up to this point, but also for the help they have given me with the di cult task of writing this thesis in English. Finally I would like tothankmy wife Ruthie for working around my short \mental going to work " periods, unlike the others she will have tocontinue living with me. 2
Quantum Key Distribution and String Oblivious Transfer on Noisy Channels, Los Alamos preprint archive quantph/9606003
 Advances in Cryptology: Proceeding of Crypto ’96, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
"... Abstract. We prove the unconditional security of a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol on a noisy channel against the most general attack allowed by quantum physics. We use the fact that in a previous paper we have reduced the proof of the unconditionally security of this QKD protocol to a proof ..."
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Cited by 42 (9 self)
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Abstract. We prove the unconditional security of a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol on a noisy channel against the most general attack allowed by quantum physics. We use the fact that in a previous paper we have reduced the proof of the unconditionally security of this QKD protocol to a proof that a corresponding Quantum String Oblivious Transfer (StringQOT) protocol would be unconditionally secure against Bob if implemented on top of an unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme. We prove a lemma that extends a security proof given by Yao for a (one bit) QOT protocol to this StringQOT protocol. This result and the reduction mentioned above implies the unconditional security of our QKD protocol despite our previous proof that unconditionally secure bit commitment schemes are impossible. 1
Security of Quantum Protocols against Coherent Measurements
 Proceedings of 26th Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 1995
"... The goal of quantum cryptography is to design cryptographic protocols whose security depends on quantum physics and little else. A serious obstacle to security proofs is the cheaters' ability to make coherent measurements on the joint properties of large composite states. With the exception of comm ..."
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Cited by 39 (0 self)
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The goal of quantum cryptography is to design cryptographic protocols whose security depends on quantum physics and little else. A serious obstacle to security proofs is the cheaters' ability to make coherent measurements on the joint properties of large composite states. With the exception of commit protocols, no cryptographic primitives have been proved secure when coherent measurements are allowed. In this paper we develop some mathematical techniques for analyzing probabilistic events in Hilbert spaces, and prove the security of a canonical quantum oblivious transfer protocol against coherent measurements. 1 Introduction Work on quantum cryptography was started by Wiesner [Wi70] twentyfive years ago. Much knowledge on how to exploit quantum physics for cryptographic purposes has been gained through the work of Bennet and Brassard ([BBBW83][BB84][BBBSS92]), and later Cr'epeau ([Cr90][BC91][BBCS92][Cr94]). Furthermore, prototypes for implementing some of these This research was...
Information and Computation: Classical and Quantum Aspects
 REVIEWS OF MODERN PHYSICS
, 2001
"... Quantum theory has found a new field of applications in the realm of information and computation during the recent years. This paper reviews how quantum physics allows information coding in classically unexpected and subtle nonlocal ways, as well as information processing with an efficiency largely ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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Quantum theory has found a new field of applications in the realm of information and computation during the recent years. This paper reviews how quantum physics allows information coding in classically unexpected and subtle nonlocal ways, as well as information processing with an efficiency largely surpassing that of the present and foreseeable classical computers. Some outstanding aspects of classical and quantum information theory will be addressed here. Quantum teleportation, dense coding, and quantum cryptography are discussed as a few samples of the impact of quanta in the transmission of information. Quantum logic gates and quantum algorithms are also discussed as instances of the improvement in information processing by a quantum computer. We provide finally some examples of current experimental
Correct and Private Reductions among Oblivious Transfers
, 1990
"... Roughly speaking a protocol is a way of exchanging messages so that each party gains some specified information. Correctness and privacy are fundamental constraints to the notion of a secure protocol. Essentially, correctness guarantees that the information the parties learn in executing a protocol ..."
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Cited by 21 (6 self)
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Roughly speaking a protocol is a way of exchanging messages so that each party gains some specified information. Correctness and privacy are fundamental constraints to the notion of a secure protocol. Essentially, correctness guarantees that the information the parties learn in executing a protocol is what was specified. Privacy guarantees that they cannot learn more than that. We investigate correctness and privacy for the primitive notion of oblivious transfer protocols. As introduced by Rabin, in an oblivious transfer a party S (the sender) owning a secret message m discloses this message to another party R (the receiver) with probability 1 2 . S does not find out whether R did get the message or not. A different version of this notion (1outof2oblivious transfer) was introduced by Even, Goldreich and Lempel. Traditionally, correctness and privacy were guaranteed assuming that the parties had bounded computational resources and that some appropriate mathematical problems were in...
Quantum digital signatures
, 2001
"... We present a quantum digital signature scheme whose security is based on fundamental principles of quantum physics. It allows a sender (Alice) to sign a message in such a way that the signature can be validated by a number of different people, and all will agree either that the message came from Ali ..."
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Cited by 17 (1 self)
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We present a quantum digital signature scheme whose security is based on fundamental principles of quantum physics. It allows a sender (Alice) to sign a message in such a way that the signature can be validated by a number of different people, and all will agree either that the message came from Alice or that it has been tampered with. To accomplish this task, each recipient of the message must have a copy of Alice’s “public key, ” which is a set of quantum states whose exact identity is known only to Alice. Quantum public keys are more difficult to deal with than classical public keys: for instance, only a limited number of copies can be in circulation, or the scheme becomes insecure. However, in exchange for this price, we achieve unconditionally secure digital signatures. Sending an mbit message uses up O(m) quantum bits for each recipient of the public key. We briefly discuss how to securely distribute quantum public keys, and show the signature scheme is absolutely secure using one method of key distribution. The protocol provides a model for importing the ideas of classical public key cryptography into the quantum world. 1.
Quantum Computation
 In Annual Review of Computational Physics VI, D. Stauffer, Ed., World Scientific
, 1999
"... In the last few years, theoretical study of quantum systems serving as computational devices has achieved tremendous progress. We now have strong theoretical evidence that quantum computers, if built, might be used as a dramatically powerful computational tool, capable of performing tasks which seem ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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In the last few years, theoretical study of quantum systems serving as computational devices has achieved tremendous progress. We now have strong theoretical evidence that quantum computers, if built, might be used as a dramatically powerful computational tool, capable of performing tasks which seem intractable for classical computers. This review is about to tell the story of theoretical quantum computation. I left out the developing topic of experimental realizations of the model, and neglected other closely related topics which are quantum information and quantum communication. As a result of narrowing the scope of this paper, I hope it has gained the benefit of being an almost self contained introduction to the exciting field of quantum computation. The review begins with background on theoretical computer science, Turing machines and Boolean circuits. In light of these models, I define quantum computers, and discuss the issue of universal quantum gates. Quantum algorithms, including Shor’s factorization algorithm and Grover’s algorithm for searching databases, are explained. I will devote much attention to understanding what the origins of the quantum computational power are, and what the limits of this power are. Finally, I describe the recent theoretical results which show that quantum computers maintain their complexity power even in the presence of noise, inaccuracies and finite precision. This question cannot be separated from that of quantum complexity, because any realistic model will inevitably be subject to such inaccuracies. I tried to put all results in their context, asking what the implications to other issues in computer science and physics are. In the end of this review I make these connections explicit, discussing the possible implications of quantum computation on fundamental physical questions, such as the transition from quantum to classical physics. 1
Quantum Cryptography Over Underground Optical Fibers
 Advances in Cryptology  Proceedings of Crypto '96
, 1996
"... Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light whose security is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither succ ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light whose security is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental system with which we are generating key material over 14km of underground optical fiber. These results demonstrate that opticalfiber based quantum cryptography could allow secure, realtime key generation over "open" multikm nodetonode optical fiber communications links between secure "islands." 1. Introduction Two of the main goals of cryptography (encryption and authentication of messages) can be accomplished, with provable security, if the sender ("Alice") and recipi...