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189
Deterministic Annealing for Clustering, Compression, Classification, Regression, and Related Optimization Problems
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1998
"... this paper. Let us place it within the neural network perspective, and particularly that of learning. The area of neural networks has greatly benefited from its unique position at the crossroads of several diverse scientific and engineering disciplines including statistics and probability theory, ph ..."
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Cited by 247 (11 self)
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this paper. Let us place it within the neural network perspective, and particularly that of learning. The area of neural networks has greatly benefited from its unique position at the crossroads of several diverse scientific and engineering disciplines including statistics and probability theory, physics, biology, control and signal processing, information theory, complexity theory, and psychology (see [45]). Neural networks have provided a fertile soil for the infusion (and occasionally confusion) of ideas, as well as a meeting ground for comparing viewpoints, sharing tools, and renovating approaches. It is within the illdefined boundaries of the field of neural networks that researchers in traditionally distant fields have come to the realization that they have been attacking fundamentally similar optimization problems.
A New Evolutionary System for Evolving Artificial Neural Networks
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 1996
"... This paper presents a new evolutionary system, i.e., EPNet, for evolving artificial neural networks (ANNs). The evolutionary algorithm used in EPNet is based on Fogel's evolutionary programming (EP) [1], [2], [3]. Unlike most previous studies on evolving ANNs, this paper puts its emphasis on evolvin ..."
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Cited by 155 (35 self)
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This paper presents a new evolutionary system, i.e., EPNet, for evolving artificial neural networks (ANNs). The evolutionary algorithm used in EPNet is based on Fogel's evolutionary programming (EP) [1], [2], [3]. Unlike most previous studies on evolving ANNs, this paper puts its emphasis on evolving ANN's behaviours. This is one of the primary reasons why EP is adopted. Five mutation operators proposed in EPNet reflect such an emphasis on evolving behaviours. Close behavioural links between parents and their offspring are maintained by various mutations, such as partial training and node splitting. EPNet evolves ANN's architectures and connection weights (including biases 1 ) simultaneously in order to reduce the noise in fitness evaluation. The parsimony of evolved ANNs is encouraged by preferring node/connection deletion to addition. EPNet has been tested on a number of benchmark problems in machine learning and ANNs, such as the parity problem, the medical diagnosis problems (bre...
A Unified Framework for Modelbased Clustering
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2003
"... Modelbased clustering techniques have been widely used and have shown promising results in many applications involving complex data. This paper presents a unified framework for probabilistic modelbased clustering based on a bipartite graph view of data and models that highlights the commonaliti ..."
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Cited by 56 (6 self)
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Modelbased clustering techniques have been widely used and have shown promising results in many applications involving complex data. This paper presents a unified framework for probabilistic modelbased clustering based on a bipartite graph view of data and models that highlights the commonalities and differences among existing modelbased clustering algorithms. In this view, clusters are represented as probabilistic models in a model space that is conceptually separate from the data space. For partitional clustering, the view is conceptually similar to the ExpectationMaximization (EM) algorithm. For hierarchical clustering, the graphbased view helps to visualize critical/important distinctions between similaritybased approaches and modelbased approaches.
A Survey of Fuzzy Clustering Algorithms for Pattern Recognition  Part 11
"... the concepts of fuzzy clustering and soft competitive learning in clustering algorithms is proposed on the basis of the existing literature. Moreover, a set of functional attributes is selected for use as dictionary entries in the comparison of clustering algorithms. In this paper, five clustering a ..."
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Cited by 50 (2 self)
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the concepts of fuzzy clustering and soft competitive learning in clustering algorithms is proposed on the basis of the existing literature. Moreover, a set of functional attributes is selected for use as dictionary entries in the comparison of clustering algorithms. In this paper, five clustering algorithms taken from the literature are reviewed, assessed and compared on the basis of the selected properties of interest. These clustering models are 1) selforganizing map (SOM); 2) fuzzy learning vector quantization (FLVQ); 3) fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (fuzzy ART); 4) growing neural gas (GNG); 5) fully selforganizing simplified adaptive resonance theory (FOSART). Although our theoretical comparison is fairly simple, it yields observations that may appear parodoxical. First, only FLVQ, fuzzy ART, and FOSART exploit concepts derived from fuzzy set theory (e.g., relative and/or absolute fuzzy membership functions). Secondly, only SOM, FLVQ, GNG, and FOSART employ soft competitive learning mechanisms, which are affected by asymptotic misbehaviors in the case of FLVQ, i.e., only SOM, GNG, and FOSART are considered effective fuzzy clustering algorithms. Index Termsâ€”Ecological net, fuzzy clustering, modular architecture, relative and absolute membership function, soft and hard competitive learning, topologically correct mapping. I.
A survey of kernel and spectral methods for clustering
, 2008
"... Clustering algorithms are a useful tool to explore data structures and have been employed in many disciplines. The focus of this paper is the partitioning clustering problem with a special interest in two recent approaches: kernel and spectral methods. The aim of this paper is to present a survey of ..."
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Cited by 45 (5 self)
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Clustering algorithms are a useful tool to explore data structures and have been employed in many disciplines. The focus of this paper is the partitioning clustering problem with a special interest in two recent approaches: kernel and spectral methods. The aim of this paper is to present a survey of kernel and spectral clustering methods, two approaches able to produce nonlinear separating hypersurfaces between clusters. The presented kernel clustering methods are the kernel version of many classical clustering algorithms, e.g., Kmeans, SOM and neural gas. Spectral clustering arise from concepts in spectral graph theory and the clustering problem is configured as a graph cut problem where an appropriate objective function has to be optimized. An explicit proof of the fact that these two paradigms have the same objective is reported since it has been proven that these two seemingly different approaches have the same mathematical foundation. Besides, fuzzy kernel clustering methods are presented as extensions of kernel Kmeans clustering algorithm.
Simultaneous Training of Negatively Correlated Neural Networks in an Ensemble
 IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics
, 1999
"... This paper presents a new cooperative ensemble learning system (CELS) for designing neural network ensembles. The idea behind CELS is to encourage different individual networks in an ensemble to learn different parts or aspects of a training data so that the ensemble can learn the whole training dat ..."
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Cited by 43 (20 self)
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This paper presents a new cooperative ensemble learning system (CELS) for designing neural network ensembles. The idea behind CELS is to encourage different individual networks in an ensemble to learn different parts or aspects of a training data so that the ensemble can learn the whole training data better. In CELS, the individual networks are trained simultaneously rather than independently or sequentially. This provides an opportunity for the individual networks to interact with each other and to specialize. CELS can create negatively correlated neural networks using a correlation penalty term in the error function to encourage such specialization. This paper analyzes CELS in terms of biasvariancecovariance tradeoff. CELS has also been tested on the MackeyGlass time series prediction problem and the Australian credit card assessment problem. The experimental results show that CELS can produce neural network ensembles with good generalization ability.
A Constructive Algorithm for Training Cooperative Neural Network Ensembles
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 2003
"... This paper presents a constructive algorithm for training cooperative neuralnetwork ensembles (CNNEs). CNNE combines ensemble architecture design with cooperative training for individual neural networks (NNs) in ensembles. Unlike most previous studies on training ensembles, CNNE puts emphasis on bo ..."
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Cited by 40 (16 self)
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This paper presents a constructive algorithm for training cooperative neuralnetwork ensembles (CNNEs). CNNE combines ensemble architecture design with cooperative training for individual neural networks (NNs) in ensembles. Unlike most previous studies on training ensembles, CNNE puts emphasis on both accuracy and diversity among individual NNs in an ensemble. In order to maintain accuracy among individual NNs, the number of hidden nodes in individual NNs are also determined by a constructive approach. Incremental training based on negative correlation is used in CNNE to train individual NNs for different numbers of training epochs. The use of negative correlation learning and different training epochs for training individual NNs reflect CNNEs emphasis on diversity among individual NNs in an ensemble. CNNE has been tested extensively on a number of benchmark problems in machine learning and neural networks, including Australian credit card assessment, breast cancer, diabetes, glass, heart disease, letter recognition, soybean, and MackeyGlass time series prediction problems. The experimental results show that CNNE can produce NN ensembles with good generalization ability.
A SelfOrganizing Network That Can Follow NonStationary Distributions
, 1997
"... . A new online criterion for identifying "useless" neurons of a selforganizing network is proposed. When this criterion is used in the context of the (formerly developed) growing neural gas model to guide deletions of units, the resulting method is able to closely track nonstationary distributions ..."
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Cited by 33 (0 self)
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. A new online criterion for identifying "useless" neurons of a selforganizing network is proposed. When this criterion is used in the context of the (formerly developed) growing neural gas model to guide deletions of units, the resulting method is able to closely track nonstationary distributions. Slow changes of the distribution are handled by adaptation of existing units. Rapid changes are handled by removal of "useless" neurons and subsequent insertions of new units in other places. 1 Nonstationary data is difficult to handle : : : Nonstationary data distributions can be found in many technical, biological or economical processes. Selforganizing neural networks have rarely been considered for tracking those distributions since many of the models, e.g. the selforganizing map [6], neural gas [8], or the hypercubical map [1], use decaying adaptation parameters 1 . Once the adaptation strength has decayed, the network is "frozen" and thus unable to react to subsequent changes i...
A SelfOrganising Network That Grows When Required
, 2002
"... The ability to grow extra nodes is a potentially useful facility for a selforganising neural network. A network that can add nodes into its map space can approximate the input space more accurately, and often more parsimoniously, than a network with predefined structure and size, such as the SelfO ..."
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Cited by 30 (5 self)
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The ability to grow extra nodes is a potentially useful facility for a selforganising neural network. A network that can add nodes into its map space can approximate the input space more accurately, and often more parsimoniously, than a network with predefined structure and size, such as the SelfOrganising Map. In addition, a growing network can deal with dynamic input distributions. Most of the growing networks that have been proposed in the literature add new nodes to support the node that has accumulated the highest error during previous iterations or to support topological structures. This usually means that new nodes are added only when the number of iterations is an integer multiple of some predefined constant,
A Novel Kernel Method for Clustering
, 2005
"... Kernel Methods are algorithms that, by replacing the inner product with an appropriate positive definite function, implicitly perform a nonlinear mapping of the input data into a highdimensional feature space. In this paper, we present a kernel method for clustering inspired by the classical KMean ..."
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Cited by 29 (2 self)
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Kernel Methods are algorithms that, by replacing the inner product with an appropriate positive definite function, implicitly perform a nonlinear mapping of the input data into a highdimensional feature space. In this paper, we present a kernel method for clustering inspired by the classical KMeans algorithm in which each cluster is iteratively refined using a oneclass Support Vector Machine. Our method, which can be easily implemented, compares favorably with respect to popular clustering algorithms, like KMeans, Neural Gas, and SelfOrganizing Maps, on a synthetic data set and three UCI real data benchmarks (IRIS data, Wisconsin breast cancer database, Spam database).