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2,475
Independent Component Analysis
 Neural Computing Surveys
, 2001
"... A common problem encountered in such disciplines as statistics, data analysis, signal processing, and neural network research, is nding a suitable representation of multivariate data. For computational and conceptual simplicity, such a representation is often sought as a linear transformation of the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1492 (93 self)
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A common problem encountered in such disciplines as statistics, data analysis, signal processing, and neural network research, is nding a suitable representation of multivariate data. For computational and conceptual simplicity, such a representation is often sought as a linear transformation of the original data. Wellknown linear transformation methods include, for example, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and projection pursuit. A recently developed linear transformation method is independent component analysis (ICA), in which the desired representation is the one that minimizes the statistical dependence of the components of the representation. Such a representation seems to capture the essential structure of the data in many applications. In this paper, we survey the existing theory and methods for ICA. 1
Statistical pattern recognition: A review
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... The primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice. More recently, neural network techniques ..."
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Cited by 657 (22 self)
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The primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice. More recently, neural network techniques and methods imported from statistical learning theory have bean receiving increasing attention. The design of a recognition system requires careful attention to the following issues: definition of pattern classes, sensing environment, pattern representation, feature extraction and selection, cluster analysis, classifier design and learning, selection of training and test samples, and performance evaluation. In spite of almost 50 years of research and development in this field, the general problem of recognizing complex patterns with arbitrary orientation, location, and scale remains unsolved. New and emerging applications, such as data mining, web searching, retrieval of multimedia data, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. The objective of this review paper is to summarize and compare some of the wellknown methods used in various stages of a pattern recognition system and identify research topics and applications which are at the forefront of this exciting and challenging field.
Regularization Theory and Neural Networks Architectures
 Neural Computation
, 1995
"... We had previously shown that regularization principles lead to approximation schemes which are equivalent to networks with one layer of hidden units, called Regularization Networks. In particular, standard smoothness functionals lead to a subclass of regularization networks, the well known Radial Ba ..."
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Cited by 309 (31 self)
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We had previously shown that regularization principles lead to approximation schemes which are equivalent to networks with one layer of hidden units, called Regularization Networks. In particular, standard smoothness functionals lead to a subclass of regularization networks, the well known Radial Basis Functions approximation schemes. This paper shows that regularization networks encompass a much broader range of approximation schemes, including many of the popular general additive models and some of the neural networks. In particular, we introduce new classes of smoothness functionals that lead to different classes of basis functions. Additive splines as well as some tensor product splines can be obtained from appropriate classes of smoothness functionals. Furthermore, the same generalization that extends Radial Basis Functions (RBF) to Hyper Basis Functions (HBF) also leads from additive models to ridge approximation models, containing as special cases Breiman's hinge functions, som...
GTM: The generative topographic mapping
 Neural Computation
, 1998
"... Latent variable models represent the probability density of data in a space of several dimensions in terms of a smaller number of latent, or hidden, variables. A familiar example is factor analysis which is based on a linear transformations between the latent space and the data space. In this paper ..."
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Cited by 275 (5 self)
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Latent variable models represent the probability density of data in a space of several dimensions in terms of a smaller number of latent, or hidden, variables. A familiar example is factor analysis which is based on a linear transformations between the latent space and the data space. In this paper we introduce a form of nonlinear latent variable model called the Generative Topographic Mapping for which the parameters of the model can be determined using the EM algorithm. GTM provides a principled alternative to the widely used SelfOrganizing Map (SOM) of Kohonen (1982), and overcomes most of the significant limitations of the SOM. We demonstrate the performance of the GTM algorithm on a toy problem and on simulated data from flow diagnostics for a multiphase oil pipeline. Copyright c○MIT Press (1998). 1
Growing Cell Structures  A Selforganizing Network for Unsupervised and Supervised Learning
 Neural Networks
, 1993
"... We present a new selforganizing neural network model having two variants. The first variant performs unsupervised learning and can be used for data visualization, clustering, and vector quantization. The main advantage over existing approaches, e.g., the Kohonen feature map, is the ability of the m ..."
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Cited by 250 (11 self)
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We present a new selforganizing neural network model having two variants. The first variant performs unsupervised learning and can be used for data visualization, clustering, and vector quantization. The main advantage over existing approaches, e.g., the Kohonen feature map, is the ability of the model to automatically find a suitable network structure and size. This is achieved through a controlled growth process which also includes occasional removal of units. The second variant of the model is a supervised learning method which results from the combination of the abovementioned selforganizing network with the radial basis function (RBF) approach. In this model it is possible  in contrast to earlier approaches  to perform the positioning of the RBF units and the supervised training of the weights in parallel. Therefore, the current classification error can be used to determine where to insert new RBF units. This leads to small networks which generalize very well. Results on the t...
Survey of clustering data mining techniques
, 2002
"... Accrue Software, Inc. Clustering is a division of data into groups of similar objects. Representing the data by fewer clusters necessarily loses certain fine details, but achieves simplification. It models data by its clusters. Data modeling puts clustering in a historical perspective rooted in math ..."
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Cited by 247 (0 self)
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Accrue Software, Inc. Clustering is a division of data into groups of similar objects. Representing the data by fewer clusters necessarily loses certain fine details, but achieves simplification. It models data by its clusters. Data modeling puts clustering in a historical perspective rooted in mathematics, statistics, and numerical analysis. From a machine learning perspective clusters correspond to hidden patterns, the search for clusters is unsupervised learning, and the resulting system represents a data concept. From a practical perspective clustering plays an outstanding role in data mining applications such as scientific data exploration, information retrieval and text mining, spatial database applications, Web analysis, CRM, marketing, medical diagnostics, computational biology, and many others. Clustering is the subject of active research in several fields such as statistics, pattern recognition, and machine learning. This survey focuses on clustering in data mining. Data mining adds to clustering the complications of very large datasets with very many attributes of different types. This imposes unique
Survey of clustering algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS
, 2005
"... Data analysis plays an indispensable role for understanding various phenomena. Cluster analysis, primitive exploration with little or no prior knowledge, consists of research developed across a wide variety of communities. The diversity, on one hand, equips us with many tools. On the other hand, the ..."
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Cited by 231 (3 self)
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Data analysis plays an indispensable role for understanding various phenomena. Cluster analysis, primitive exploration with little or no prior knowledge, consists of research developed across a wide variety of communities. The diversity, on one hand, equips us with many tools. On the other hand, the profusion of options causes confusion. We survey clustering algorithms for data sets appearing in statistics, computer science, and machine learning, and illustrate their applications in some benchmark data sets, the traveling salesman problem, and bioinformatics, a new field attracting intensive efforts. Several tightly related topics, proximity measure, and cluster validation, are also discussed.
Learning the Distribution of Object Trajectories for Event Recognition
 Proc. British Machine Vision Conference
, 1995
"... The advent in recent years of robust, realtime, modelbased tracking techniques for rigid and nonrigid moving objects has made automated surveillance and event recognition a possibility. We present a statistically based model of object trajectories which is learnt from image sequences. Trajectory ..."
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Cited by 220 (11 self)
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The advent in recent years of robust, realtime, modelbased tracking techniques for rigid and nonrigid moving objects has made automated surveillance and event recognition a possibility. We present a statistically based model of object trajectories which is learnt from image sequences. Trajectory data is supplied by a tracker using Active Shape Models, from which a model of the distribution of typical trajectories is learnt. Experimental results are included to show the generation of the model for trajectories within a pedestrian scene. We indicate how the resulting model can be used for the identification of incidents, event recognition and trajectory prediction. 1